или Abdur Rahman Khan "The Iron Amir" - 1880-1901.
Эмир Abdur Rahman Khan на фотографиях с тросточкой.
Burke: The Iron Amir at Rawalpindi during the Penjdeh crisis.
Abdur Rahman was a most remarkable man, greatly resembling his grandfather Dost Mahomed in strength of character and faculty for dealing with men. In 1863 Dost Mohammad retook Herat with British acquiescence, but a few months later, Dost Mohammad died. Sher Ali, his third son, and proclaimed successor, failed to recapture Kabul from his older brother, Mohammad Afzal (whose troops were led by his son, Abdur Rahman) until 1868, after which Abdur Rahman retreated across the Amu Darya, placed himself under Russian protection, and bided his time.
With British forces occupying much of the country, Sher Ali's son and successor, Yaqub, signed the Treaty of Gandamak in May 1879 to prevent a British invasion of the rest of the country. According to this agreement and in return for an annual subsidy and vague assurances of assistance in case of foreign aggression, Yaqub relinquished control of Afghan foreign affairs to the British. British representatives were installed in Kabul and other locations, British control was extended to the Khyber and Michni passes, and the Afghanistan ceded various frontier areas to Britain. Yakub Khan felt that further rule in Afghanistan was impossible and thereupon spontaneously abdicated.
His abdication was welcomed by the Indian Government as likely to assist it in carrying out the most important parts of its policy. For the present the future of Kabul or of the Oxus provinces could not be decided. But Kandahar was to be finally separated from Kabul, and Herat might be handed over to Persia. Shere Ali Khan was installed at Kandahar in April 1880, but no suitable candidate for the throne of Kabul was then forthcoming. Abdur Rahman had been almost twelve years in Russian exile. Abdur Rahman, Shere Ali's nephew, was at last allowed by Russia to try his fortunes in Afghanistan. The Russians, fully aware of the British difficulties and of their willingness to accept any strong candidate for the throne of Kabul, probably thought that, by sending forth Abdur Rahman, they were welding a useful instrument for future use. In this they were woefully mistaken.
Abdurrahman, left Russia, concluded a treaty with the Indian Government, and succeeded to the Kabul throne in July 1880. The kingdom upon which he thus entered he subsequently trebled in size by the successive annexations of:—Herat, which was under Ayoob, son of the late Amir, Shere Ali; Kandahar, which was placed under Sirdar Shere Ali Wali of Kandahar by the British; Hazarah J at, which for four centuries had been independent of Afghanistan; and Kafiristan, which had never before been annexed to Afghanistan since the time of Alexander the Great. These extensive dominions he has succeeded in reducing to a condition of peaceful order previously unknown in the history of Afghanistan, and has established throughout them a uniform administration of government.
Amir Abd al-Rahman Khan was a shrewd man and a forceful ruler and was known and the “Iron Amir”. He did much to diminish the power of warlike tribes and to promote a spirit of national unity. By the time of his death in 1901, the internal affairs of AFGHANISTAN were stabilized and the country received substantial military and economic aid from the British Raj.