The book is devoted to the last studies in the field of New Chronology and based on it reconstruction of the history – yet a suppositional one.
In introduction we provide additional PROOFS of the New Chronology, recently received by us, these are new astronomical datings of the ancient zodiacs. The other chapters of the book are devoted to reconstruction. In them we try to read once again – based on the New Chronology – a number of the famous "antique" primary sources, to understand them in a new way, to clarify which events of the Middle Ages they describe.
All the results, stated in the present book, were recently received by us, are new and published for the first time. The present work follows our previous book "Tsar Rome between rivers Oka and Volga". We continue an interesting analysis of the ancient chronicles from the point of new, correct chronology. We remind that THE CORRECT CHRONOLOGY WAS CREATED BY US BY MEANS OF MATHEMATICAL, STATISTICAL AND ASTRONOMICAL METHODS. IT LET US RESTORE A ROUGH "SKELETON OF THE HISTORY". That is a system of the main dates, "a spinal column", on which events of the past are beaded. This is an EVIDENTIAL part of our studies and is stated, for example, in the first three books of the seven volumes "Chronology. First Canon": A.T.Fomenko - "Foundations of the History"; A.T.Fomenko - "Methods"; V.V.Kalashnikov, G.V.Nosovskiy, A.T.Fomenko - "Stars"; and also in the books: A.T.Fomenko - "Antiquity is the Middle Ages"; V.V.Kalashnikov, G.V.Nosovskiy, A.T.Fomenko - "Astronomical analysis of chronology"; G.V.Nosovskiy, A.T.Fomenko - "New chronology of Egypt"; G.V.Nosovskiy, A.T.Fomenko - "Ancient zodiacs of Egypt and Europe". The readers, who first want to learn about the natural-scientific proofs, which compose the fundament of the theory, should refer to the indicated books.
But the resulting from our studies new chronological "skeleton" of the history actually didn't give a unique answer to the interesting for many people question about the authentic history of the past, what was its "flesh"? Many people asked us: if, as you prove, the history of the human civilization was not such, as we learn at school, how it looked in reality?
That's why it seemed us natural after restoration of the correct chronology of the past to try to put the historical flesh on the chronological skeleton. It appeared that it could be done with the help, in particular, of the "antique" texts. Now, when it became clear that all of them actually tell about the events of the XI-XVII centuries, it is extremely interesting TO READ THEM ONCE AGAIN with a fresh impartial look. With this it is possible to see clearly many things, which the former researchers didn't notice, or tried to hide, "to circumlocutionize". In particular, it now becomes clear that "antique" authors – Herodotus, Thucydides, Plutarch, Xenophon, Plato and many others – actually tell about the medieval events of the XI-XVII centuries. Many of these events – but far not all of them! – are already known to us from the other chronicles, accepted by historians as medieval ones. But "antique" authors, - even although their works were tendentiously edited in the XVI-XVIII centuries, - tell MUCH NEW ABOUT THE EPOCH OF THE XI-XVII CENTURIES. They considerably widen our imagination about the Middle Ages. Descriptions of the events, artificially moved by the Scaligerian historians to "the deep ancientry", return to their authentic chronological and geographical place and start to play with new colors, letting us better imagine the life of our forefathers from the XI-XVII centuries.
We underline that this part of our studies, connected with the reading of the old chronicles in the light of the New Chronology, is not a probatory in the strict sense of the word. This is just some interpretation. But unfortunately the history can't exist without interpretations, and it was always so. We repeat that the proofs of the new chronology are stated in our other books, where THE METHODS and the received based on them mathematical, statistical and astronomical RESULTS are described.
The history of "Ancient" Greece intrudes in our minds since childhood. The school textbooks, myths, novels, films... From all this the well-known images of the classical ancientry appear: Olympic gods and demigods on the foggy Olympus, Olympic games, antique heroes and chroniclers. The bloody Trojan war and its blind singer Homer. The love of Greek Helen of Troy and Trojan Paris. Their passion, revenge of the Greeks, death of many heroes. Wiseman Socrates was unfairly convicted and drank the poison. The Persian tsar Cyrus tries to burn the Lydian tsar Croesus, an owner of a glut of wealth, on a big fire. The legendary Athenian commanders Nikias, Themistocles, and Alkiviades. The Spartan tsars Pausanias and Lysandros. The destructive Peloponnesian war of the Athenians with the Spartans. The Barbarians-Persians, falling on unhappy Greece. A delicate nobility of the Greeks and a put in the window luxury of the proud, but "barbarian" Persians.
Today it is considered that an educated person should more or less know not only the history of the Ancient Rome, but also the history of the Ancient Greece. And so it is even more interesting to address to the works of the famous "ancient"-Greek authors and understand – what they actually tell about. It appears that it is much told in them in details about the evangelic events, which happened, according to the new chronology, in the XII century A.D. And also about the Crusades of the XIII century A.D., that is, according to our studies, - about the Trojan war.
The main worldly sources of the data about Christ, as we showed in the book "Tsar of the Slavs", are different life stories of Tsar-Grad imperator Andronicus Komnin. In the Russian chronicles Andronicus-Christ is described under the name of the great Russian prince Andrew the Pious, who lived in the XII century A.D. That's why we start a list of the life stories of Andronicus-Christ exactly from them. "The chronicle biographies" of imperator Andronicus and prince Andrew the Pious could be in a great measure considered to be the most complete reached us worldly evidences of Jesus Christ, who lived, according to the new chronology, in the XII century. So:
1) ANDRONICUS KOMNIN, the Byzantine imperator of the XII century A.D.
2) ANDREW HE PIOUS, the great Russian prince of the XII century A.D.
Imperator Andronicus-Christ was then reflected in many chronicles under other names. We will list here the earlier found by us reflections of Christ on the pages of the Saligerian textbook – see details in our books "Tsar of the Slavs", "Beginning of the Horde Russia" and "Tsar Rome between the rivers Oka and Volga". One should understand that many of such phantom reflections of Andronicus-Christ are fractional. To be more exact, the listed below life stories, taken from the Scaligerian version, were composed of several layers, among which there was the famous "layer of Andronicus-Christ". Sometimes this layer is the main and sometimes not. In the last case fragments of the life story of Andronicus-Christ are usually seriously mixed with the data about other people, who had lived at the epoch of the XII-XV centuries. So, here is a list of the found by us reflections of Christ in the Scaligerian version of history:
3) JESUS CHRIST, allegedly the I century A.D.,
4) ANDREW THE FIRST-CALLED, an apostle of allegedly the I century A.D.,
5) GREGORIUS VII HILDEBRAND, allegedly the XI century A.D., in Rome,
6) RUDOLPH OF SWABIA, an anti-king, allegedly the XI century A.D., in Rome.
7) Imperator PHOKAS, allegedly 602-610 A.D, in Byzantium,
8) Imperator ROMAN ARGIRUS, allegedly 1028-1034 A.D., in Byzantium,
9) MICHAEL KALAFATUS, allegedly 1041-1042 A.D., in Byzantium,
10) ISAAC I COMNIN, allegedly 1057-1059 A.D., in Byzantium,
11) ROMAN DIOGEN, allegedly 1068-1071 A.D., in Byzantium,
12) ROMULUS, the first tsar of "antique" tsar Rome, allegedly the VIII century B.C.
13) SERVIUS TULLIUS, the last but one, sixth tsar of Tsar Rome, allegedly 578-535 B.C.
14) OSIRIS or OZIRIS, an "ancient"-Egyptian god, and also god HORUS or KHORUS,
15) DIONYSUS, an "antique" god,
16) KOLYADA, the god of medieval Slavs, and also medieval Western-European SANTA CLAUS,
17) ORPHEUS, an "antique" god,
18) ZEUS, the supreme "antique" god,
19) DAVYD or DAVID, the Biblical Old Testament tsar,
20) GAIUS JULIUS CAESAR, the Roman imperator, allegedly the I century B.C.
21) EUCLID, the famous mathematician, geometer, allegedly 315-255 B.C.,
22) ASKOLD, the Russian prince, allegedly the IX century A.D.,
23) The death of Russian prince OLEG, allegedly the X century A.D.,
24) IGOR, the Russian prince, allegedly the X century A.D.,
25) The death of Egyptian tsarina CLEOPATRA, allegedly the I century B.C.,
26) ANTONIUS, the "ancient"-Roman commander, allegedly the I century B.C.,
27) "Antique" PRIXOS,
28) "Antique" JASON or JAZON, who mined the Golden Fleece,
29) ODIN, the German-Scandinavian god,
30) The Carthaginian HANNON, allegedly the IV century B.C.,
IN THE PRESENT BOOK WE CONSIDERABLY WIDEN A LIST OF PHANTOM REFLECTIONS OF IMPERATOR ANDRONICUS-CHRIST ON THE PAGES OF THE WORLD HISTORY. It appears that the following famous heroes of "antiquity" are more or less such reflections:
31) SOCRATES, the Greek philosopher and sage, allegedly 469-399 B.C.,
32) CYRUS THE SENIOR, the Persian tsar, allegedly 559-530 B.C.,
33) CYRUS THE JUNIOR, the Persian tsarevich, allegedly the V century B.C., died allegedly in 401 B.C.,
34) CROESUS, the Lydian tsar, allegedly 560-546 or 590-545 B.C.,
35) NIKIAS, the Athenian commander, the head of Athens, allegedly the V century B.C.,
36) POLYKRATES, the tsar of Samos, allegedly the VI century B.C.,
37) CYLON, an Athenian, Olympic winner, allegedly the VII century B.C.,
38) PAUSANIAS, the Spartan tsar, allegedly the V century B.C.,
39) SALMOXIS, the god of "antique" Thracians,
40) ANDROCLES, the head of the Athenian radical democrats, allegedly the V century B.C.,
41) ANDOKIDES, àthe Athenian speaker and public person, allegedly the V century B.C.,
42) LISANDROS, the Spartan tsar, allegedly the V-IV centuries B.C.,
43) ISOKRATES, the Athenian speaker and writer, allegedly 436-338 B.C.,
44) ZOPYRUS, the famous Persian, an organizer of the capture of Babylon near tsar Darius, allegedly the VI century B.C.,
46) TIMOCREON, an Athenian, allegedly the V century B.C.,
46) PHRYNICHOS, the Athenian strategist, allegedly the V century B.C.
47) RHADAMANTHUS, an "antique" god.
On the pic.pr.1 we demonstrably expressed the Scaligerian datings of all the listed above phantom reflections. A rather impressive picture appeared. It is seen how much the image of Andronicus-Christ, which deeply impressed the coevals, was multiplied on the pages of different chronicles.
In the previous books we also provided many "antique" and medieval reflections of John the Baptist, who lived in the XII century A.D. IN THE PRESENT BOOK WE DESCRIBE ONE MORE SUCH "WORDLY" REFLECTION of John the Baptist. He turns out to be the famous from the "ancient"-Greek history CLEON, an Athenian public person and the head of radical democratic party, who lived allegedly in the V century B.C.
Next we show that Judas Iscariot, who lived, according to the new chronology, in the XII century A.D., was reflected in the history of "Ancient" Greece also as:
1) evangelic apostle Judas Iscariot,
2) Themistocles, an Athenian, the famous political person,
3) Alkiviades, an Athenian, the famous political person,
4) Alcmaeon, the founder of the famous Athenian family of Alkmeonides,
5) Strepsiades, the hero of the poem "Clouds" of Aristophanes,
6) Klearkhos, the Spartan commander,
7) Mard Gireades, a coeval of the Persian tsar Cyrus,
8) Hermokrates, a Syracusan,
9) Meandrius, a penman and a courtier of tsar of Samos Polykrates.
Finally, it appeared that Apostle Paul, who lived, according to the new chronology, in the XII-XIII centuries A.D., - was reflected in the history of "Ancient" Greece as famous "antique" XENOPHON, a writer and a commander.
We also show that the first stage of the famous Peloponnesian war allegedly of the V century B.C. was a reflection of the Trojan war of the XIII century A.D., which is the Crusades. We will tell about the second stage of the Peloponnesian war in our next book, which will be devoted to the events, described by the "ancient-Greek" authors.
A very important and unexpected sequence comes from the received by us results. For example, on the pages of the "ancient" history by now we found forty seven reflections of imperator Andronicus-Christ from the XII century A.D., several reflections of John the Baptist, nine reflections of Judas Iscariot, twenty three reflections of the Battle of Kulikovo. So it appears that IN THE REAL WRITTEN HISTORY A NUMBER OF DIFFERENT HISTORICAL EPOCHS IS CONSIDERABLY LESS THAN IT IS USUALLY CONSIDERED. For example, several tens of stories about allegedly different heroes of the past are just re-tales OF THE SAME history of Andronicus-Christ. The same is related to the history of the Battle of Kulikovo of 1380 and the history of the Trojan war of the XIII century A.D
As a result, our studies considerably CUT A NUMBER OF THE ANCIENT BIG EVENTS, THE MEMORY ABOUT WHICH REACHED US. But with this it becomes clear that each big event of the past evoked a bush of tales about it, a lot of variations on the same topic. Like in music: a music maker creates a symphony on the same musical topic, a considerable part of which – processing of the main topic. Next, at the epoch of Reformation, all these multiple historical variations, existing only on paper, were related by the chroniclers to different events. Due to this the volume of the history of past was considerably blown. We repeat that actually a number of the essential, different in their sense "bricks" in the edifice of history is considerably less than the Scaligerian version convinces us. All its other "bricks" are not more than endless repeats of the same topic.
After identification of duplicates a bush of historical tales about the same event becomes more fertile and rich. As the same event of the past is lightened now from the different points of view. We combine the evidences, earlier related to allegedly different events, but, as appeared, telling about the same things. The ancient chroniclers created many historical descriptions on the same topic. From a small number of the "initial roots" the gross trees of late fantasies, guesses, distortions, re-tales, comments, theories grew. The picture is rather natural. Let's take, for example, our time. Each notable political or cultural event is reflected in many papers, magazines, TV programs, evokes a bush of comments in internet, is surrounded by rumors and distortions. Similar things happened – of course, in a less scale, - in the Middle Ages.
Here is a common note regarding many found by us traces of the editors change of "antique" texts. As we showed in our previous books – and continue to tell in the present one, - the name of Christ and many other bright traces of the Christianity were thoroughly cleared out from the "antique" literature. As the main canvas of the Christian plots was in general kept by later editors and falsificators, - as it is always easier to take as a base an old text than to invent and write something from the beginning, - the authentic core of the issue was restored by us with the help of analysis of historical information with the methods of modern mathematics. Now on the back of the restored historical canvas those places, where the evangelic names were archly "cleared" and replaced, are well seen.
It could be told that such replacement was not specially done, but appeared due to accidental mistakes. Like the rewriters didn't understand till the end the ancient texts and especially the names in them. That's why it happened that the name "Christ" turned into other names – for example, Nikias, Socrates, Isocrates, Cyrus, Croesus etc. But this version is wrong. If really the issue was only in accidental mistakes of the rewriters, then from the simple probable considerations it is easy to understand than on the back of A BIG NUMBER of such replacements-mistakes in the "antique" texts for sure the authentic name of Christ and also some clear Christian evidences would have definitely remained somewhere. Not so many, but they should have existed. The fact that the names of Christ and his immediate circle were FULLY replaced by "antique classics" with the others means only one thing. We see an intentional falsification. The editors of the XVI-XVIII centuries intentionally searched and cleared the traces of Christianity in the ancient manuscripts, the contents of which had been "sent to the ancientry". Successfully, the skeletons of the Christian events still mainly remained untouched. Only due to this today we manage to restore an authentic background of the "antique" events.
In our books we provide a lot of ancient pictures. The reason is that the events, which were noted by painters and sculptors – these are, as a rule, the most important events of our history. That's why they always attracted the attention – of both commentators and painters. Accompanying our analysis with the ancient pictures, we underline, in particular, that the issue in the book is not about some small accidents of the long ago forgotten past, but about the important events, which were in the center of attention for several centuries. This means that the found by us correspondences are really principal ones. They are important for the correct understanding of the "ancient" and medieval history.
Moreover, the ancient pictures often contain extremely valuable information, which didn't receive the required attention from the researchers before. Now, in the light of our reconstruction, it obtains great importance, as it confirms and illustrates it.
In our books we not once paid attention to the fact that in the ancientry texts were often written without vowels or moving down most of them. For example, in the Arabic written language vowels nearly disappeared. But in the other languages vowels, especially in names, were rather unreliable. See details in [ÌÅÒ1]. That's why in the present book we often try to read the ancient names, resting only on their skeleton of consonants and in a different way vocalizing them. Sometimes it may seem to the readers not enough reasoned, as in our time there is a habit to reproduce equally clearly the vowels and the consonants in writing. But in the ancient texts it was not so. The skeleton of consonants was much more stable than vowels. Of course there is no reason to reconstruct the old names without preliminary directing considerations. But we have such considerations. By means of mathematical and astronomical methods we managed to restore the correct chronology. After this, comparing the corresponding each other "antique" and medieval events, it is possible to try to understand – who with who and what with what is identified and supposedly reconstruct the initial sounding of the names in the ancient texts.
Some not satisfied with the New Chronology people, insistently show the issue so, like our linguistic notes – these are our proofs, and even the only ones. This is wrong. Those, who say this, don't understand the difference between A PROOF of the theorem and CONSEQUENCES or COMMENTS to it. Or they pretend that they don't understand. We repeat that all the provided in the book linguistic parallels are not considered by us as independent proofs. Themselves, - like in general linguistics, applied to chronology, - they don't prove anything and just have sense only as an addition to our strict chronological results. So, only when a historical picture is already restored with absolutely other, natural-scientific methods and starts to prompt us – which ancient names are hidden under the ancient not vocalized terms.
In the present book we refer to our seven volumes "Chronology. First Canon", containing a fundament of the New Chronology and published in 2004-2006 by publishing house RIMIS, Moscow. The seven volumes consist of the following books:
1) À.Ò.Fomenko, "Foundations of the history";
2) À.Ò.Fomenko, "Methods";
3à) À.Ò.Fomenko, V.V.Kalashnikov, G.V.Nosovskiy, "Stars" Part 1;
3á) À.Ò.Fomenko, Ò.N.Fomenko, G.V.Nosovskiy, "Stars" Part 2;
4) À.Ò.Fomenko, G.V.Nosovskiy, "New chronology of Russia";
5) À.Ò.Fomenko, G.V.Nosovskiy, "Empire";
6) À.Ò.Fomenko, G.V.Nosovskiy, "Biblical Russia";
7) À.Ò.Fomenko, G.V.Nosovskiy, "Reconstruction".
See ÕÐÎÍ1, ÕÐÎÍ2, ... , ÕÐÎÍ7 in the list of literature.
We are deeply grateful to Ò.N.Fomenko for many valuable notes and additions.
Lomonosov Moscow State University