I hope that this brief study will throw light on a conceptually extremely simple issue the discussion of which has been dragging on for centuries. To date, studies carried out on the synchronisms between Judah and Israel present in Kings 12, have been based on the calculations done by the deuteronomistic. I have changed approach radically and rather than using these calculations I have used the matrix of these calculations instead or rather the synchronic chronological scale which does not tell us explicitly how long a given king reigned but obliges us to work it out ourselves by giving us the details of the calculation: King X of Judah began his reign on the XXth year of reign of King Y of Israel. The result of this new approachis that you will always find perfect synchronisms.
As far as I am aware such an approach has never been taken with the result that the latest and most complete work on the chronology of the Kings, i.e. The Chronology of the Kings of Judah and Israel by G.Galil, once again bases its repudiation of the logicalchronological validity of Kings 12 on the calculations of its biblical authors, who often made errors or their scribes did, because if we do the sums ourselves we find differences of as much as twentyfive years with those in the Bible.
Now I'll move on to the illustration of a real case which indirectly impacts on the work of all scholars (Albright, Anstey, Nobile, Balzaretti, Thiele) because all of these used calculations which were secondhand and mistaken to boot. Clearly, then, all the synchronisms between Judah and Israel are lost as a result. One last suggestion which you'll find in the key too. Don't be mislead by the dating of the various reigns. We are looking for logically and chronologically valid synchronisms of the Kings by which, paradoxically, we could date David not to 1010 B.C., as the author we are considering here, Galil, does, but to 1010 A.D. and our thesis would not change. I ask you to reflect on and understand this fundamental aspect immediately. Otherwise you might be disorientated.
Let's take the glaring case put forward by greatest international expert on the matter, G.Galil. This scholar supplies us with two cases of missing synchronism. The former relates to the years between Jeroboam and the death of Jehoram, both Kings of Israel, and those which passed from the crowning of Rehoboam to the death of Ahaziah, King of Judah. He argues that these should be identical because Jeroboam (Israel) and Rehoboam (Judah) were crowned the same year while Jehoram (Israel) and Ahaziah (Judah) died the same year as a result of the revolt of the Jehu. As they are not identical Galil deduces that the Chronology of the Kings, as it stands, is unreliable or misleading. Let's see if this is the case with my approach too, whether or not, that is, the indispensable synchronism is there if we work it out from scratch.
What we are looking for, then, is the synchronism between Judah and Israel in the period of time from Jeroboam to the death of Jehoram for Israel and from the crowning of Rehoboam to the death of Ahaziah for Judah. Let's take the chronological table at the end of this discussion and concentrate on the section containing these kings. Now let's take a look at the dates for Jeroboam and Jehoram of Israel. We find here that the former king was crowned in 930 B.C. while the death of Jehoram is dated to 837 B.C. According to Galil's reasoning we should find an identical number of years for Judah and this does not occur according to his calculations. Now, our table shows that Rehoboam of Judah was crowned in 930 B.C. while the death of Ahaziah of Judah is dated to exactly the same year as the death of Jehoram of Israel, i.e. 837 B.C. producing a perfect synchronism (93 years for each reign).
Let's look now at the second of Galil's inconsistencies. Here he once more argues that the same number of years should pass between schism and death for both Israel and Judah, that is, respectively, between Ahab of Israel and the XVIIth of Jehosophat of Judah. Look at the table once again and you'll notice that both cases show a timescale from 930 B.C. to 851 B.C. giving another perfect synchronism.
It might be argued that Galil has been more accurate than me in his calculations and that he has considered factors that I have neglected. This is not the case and I'll demonstrate it. As far as the first example is concerned, he holds that the total number of years of the kings of Judah is 95, the same figure, that is, that we obtain by simply adding together the years of the individual reigns just as was proposed by the biblical author. Galil, therefore, has not used alternative sources but rather the Bible that we all know. I 'imagine' that if this is what he did for Judah, he did the same for Israel.
What many have not appreciated is that my figures add up simply because I did not rely for convenience on the calculations of the biblical author but rather recalculated all the figures myself. Essentially then, the biblical author or the scribe made a mistake and everyone who has since relied on this has made the same mistake. In order to check the truth of my assertions, all you need to do is to attribute to David any of the values indicated by scholars and do the sums: you will always find perfect synchronisms.
I hope I have outlined and resolved the issue. I realise that a little patience is required to get into the cold logic of these numbers but it is worth it because the reliability of two whole biblical books is at stake, the backbone without which the living muscle tissue of the prophets cannot function because this is the measure of the prophetic power of Ezechiel, for example. With the exception of the Kings chronological coherence, the too quickly dismissed issue of the historic reliability of a fundamental part of the Bible, Kings 12, is completely reopened. Noone will in future be able to argue that a coherent and linear chronology of the Kings does not exist or that these books have no chronological value. This is the issue at stake.
CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE OF THE KINGS OF JUDAH AND ISRAEL
Key
1) Underlined numbers refer to the kingdom of Israel.
2) The table has been created considering the Ist year of David's reign according to G.Galil.
3) Deuteronomistic (Dtr)
KING 
YEAR CAME TO THE THRONE 
LENGTH OF REIGN EXPRESSED IN DATES 
LENGTH OF REIGN ACCORDING TO MY CALCULATIONS 
LENGTH OF REIGN ACCORDITO DTR. 
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MY CALCULATION AND THAT DTR. 

DAVID 
1010 
1010970 
40 YEARS 
40 YEARS 

SOLOMON 
970 
970930 
40 YEARS 
40 YEARS 

REHOBOAM J. 
930 
930912 
18 years 
17 YEARS 
1 
JEROBOAM IS. 
930 
930908 
22 YEARS 
22 YEARS 

ABIJAH J. 
XVIIIrd of JEROBOAM 
912910 
2 YEARS 
3 YEARS 
1 
ASA J.

XXth of JEROBOAM 
910868 
42 YEARS 
41 YEARS 
1 
NADAB IS.

IInd of ASA 
908907 
1 YEAR 
2 YEARS 
+1 
BAASHA IS.

III OF ASA 
907884 
23 YEARS 
24 YEARS 
+1 
ELAH IS.

XXVIth OF ASA 
884883 
1 YEAR 
2 YEARS 
+1 
ZIMRI IS.

XXVIIth OF ASA 
883879 
4 .YEARS 
7 DAYS 
4 
OMRI IS 
XXXIst OF ASA

879872 
7 YEARS 
12 YEARS 
+5 
AHAB IS. 
XXXVIIIrd OF ASA

872851 
21 YEARS 
22 YEARS 
+1 
JEHOSHAPHAT J. 
IVth OF AHAB

868845 
23 YEARS 
25 YEARS 
+2 
AHAZIAH IS 
XVIInd OF JEHOSHAPHAT

851850 
1 YEAR 
2 YEARS 
+1 
JEHORAM IS. 
XVIIIth OF JEHOSHAPHAT

850837 
13 YEARS 
12 YEARS 
1 
JEHORAM J. 
Vth OF JEHORAM IS.

845838 
7 YEARS 
8 YEARS 
+1 
AHAZIAH J. 
XIInd OF JEHORAM IS. 
838837 
1 YEAR 
1 YEAR 

JEHU IS. 
REIGNED FOR 28 YEARS FROM THE DEATH OF AHAZIAH 
837807 
30 YEARS 
28 YEARS 
2 
ATHALIAH J. 
REIGNED FOR 7 YEARS 
837830 
7 YEARS 
7 YEARS 

JEHOASH J.

VIIth OF JEHU 
830791 
39 YEARS 
40 YEARS 
+1 
JEHOAHAZ IS.

XXIIIrd OF JEHOASH J. 
807793 
14 YEARS 
17 YEARS 
+3 
JEHOASH IS.

XXXVIIth OF JEHOASH J. 
793776 
17 YEARS 
16 YEARS 
1 
AMAZIAH J.

IInd OF JEHOASH IS. 
791749 
42 YEARS 
29 YEARS 
+13 
JEROBOAM IS.

XVth OF AMAZIAH 
776711 
65 YEARS 
41 YEARS 
24 
UZZIAH J.

XXVIIth OF JEROBOAM 
749695 
54 YEARS 
52 YEARS 
2 
ZECHARIAH IS. 
XXXVIIIth OF UZZIAH 
711710 
6 MONTHS 
6 MONTHS 

SHALLUM IS. 
XXXIXth OF UZZIAH 
710710 
1 MONTH 
1 MONTH 

MENAHEM IS.

XXXIXth OF UZZIAH 
710699 
11 YEARS 
10 YEARS 
1 
PEKAHIAH IS. 
Lth OF UZZIAH 
699697 
2 YEARS 
2 YEARS 

PEKAH IS.

LIInd OF UZZIAH 
697668 
29 YEARS 
20 YEARS 
9 
JOTHAM J.

IInd of PEKAH 
695680 
15 YEARS 
16 YEARS 
+1 
AHAZ J.

XVIInd of PEKAH 
680665 
15 YEARS 
16 YEARS 
+1 
HOSHEA IS.

XIIth OF AHAZ 
668659 
9 YEARS 
9 YEARS 
FALL OF SAMARIA 
HEZEKIAH G. 
IIIrd OF HOSHEA 
665636 
29 YEARS 
29 YEARS 

MANASSEH J. 

636581 
55 YEARS 
55 YEARS 

AMON J. 

581579 
2 YEARS 
2 YEARS 

JOSIAH J. 

579548 
31 YEARS 
31 YEARS 

JEHOAHAZ J. 

548548 
3 MONTHS 
3 MONTHS 

JEHOIAKIM J. 

548537 
11 YEARS 
11 YEARS 

JEHOIAKIN J. 

537537 
3 MONTHS 
3 MONTHS 

ZEDEKIAH J. 

537526 
11 YEARS 
11 YEARS 
DEPORTATION 
TOTAL 


484 YEARS AND SIX MONTHS 
474 YEARS AND SIX MONTHS 
