All the results, stated in the present book, were recently received, are new and published for the first time. The present work follows our books "Beginning of the Hordian Russia" and "Christianization of Russia".
The authors found new extremely important data about Virgin Mary and imperator Andronicus-Christ (prince Andrew the Pious), the Villain war of Novgorodians, prince Dmitry Donskoy and chan Mamay, Alexander Nevskiy and the Battle on the Ice on the pages of the antique "History of Rome" of Titus Livius, the works of Plutarch and the Old Testament.
In the present book we continue to take out new and often unexpected sequences from the received by us earlier statistical and astronomical datings of the events of the past. That is from the created by us new chronology. Mathematical and astronomical proofs of the new chronology are stated by us in the previous books. First of all in: "Foundations of the history", "Methods", "Stars". We will not repeat them here.
What do we mean speaking about the new data, opened by us and considerably widening our knowledge about many famous people and events of the ancient world? The issue is not about the finding by us of any principally new, not known to anybody earlier manuscripts or signatures, taken, let's say, from some dusty forgotten archives or as a result of diggings. We mainly work with well-known ancient texts. Although sometimes we really managed to find ourselves or with the help of colleagues the extremely rare or unique historical materials, which turned out to be very valuable for the new chronology. But still we pay the main attention to the famous "antique" works, Bible, many medieval chronicles and manuscripts. Our opening, - which actually was rather unexpected for us, - is that these well-known texts hide in themselves, as appeared, a lot of unknown, firmly forgotten data, "dug-in" by the editors of the VI-XVIII centuries. And this deeply buried data should be "dug out". Sometimes with big work. Being taken out they turned out to be the fragments of some time ago rich and detailed picture of the past, forgotten fragments of the life stories of the famous heroes. Cleaning the fragments from dirt and later layers, we lighten with a bright light many half-forgotten or absolutely forgotten facts of the past.
The legend about Romulus and Rem is known to everyone from childhood. The textbooks on history, exciting novels and chic Hollywood films tell about great "antique" Rome. The runaway of tsar Aeneas from burning Troy and his arrival to the motherland of his forefathers – to the rich People country (Latinia). A severe she-wolf feeds with her milk two thrown tsar children - Romulus and Rem. The created by great Etruscans bronze statue of the proud grinned she-wolf in the museum of Vatican. The infants grow and Romulus founds Rome. The powerful Roman Empire rises. The iron legions of Rome conquer the world. The predictions of gods, that Rome will govern the Universe, come true. Bloody gladiator fights at the arena of huge Coliseum. The Annunciation. Virgin Mary hugs two infants – Christ and John the Baptist. The death of John the Baptist and the crucifixion of Christ. A sun eclipse and an earthquake at the moment of the death of Jesus. The light Resurrection of Christ. The assumption of Holy Mother and the death of legendary beauty Roman Lucretia. The fierce tigers and lions were set on the first Christians, dying with a martyrish death at the eyes of the crying from delight heathens-Romans, wearing beautiful togas with bloody-red edging. Cruel imperator Nero in a flower wreath sings a song on the tribune of a huge amphitheater. The great Roman historian Titus Livius excitingly tells about Tsar Rome in his famous "History from the foundation of the City". The great Greek historian Plutarch writes biographies of outstanding Romans and Greeks...
It is considered that an educated person should know much from the history of the Ancient Rome. And this is definitely correct. The Roman history is really a spinal column of the history of ancientry. Many modern states are rightly proud of the fact that they appeared from "antique" Rome, that many European and Asian cities were first founded by the Roman legions at the epoch of the expansion of the Empire to all sides.
In the present book we show that "antique" Tsar Rome – it is the state, which appeared between the rivers Oka and Volga, - that is to Vladimir-Suzdal Russia, - in the XIII – beginning of the XIV century. The other name of Tsar Rome – the Great = "Mongol" Empire, which, according to the new chronology, existed in the XIV-XVI centuries A.D. The accepted today point of view that "antique" Rome had conquered all the existed at that time civilized world, CORRESPONDS TO THE REALITY. But with one amendment – it happened not long ago before the Common Era, as the Scaligerian version convinces us, but at the epoch of the XIV-XVI centuries. Exactly at that time the Great = "Mongol" Empire – that is Russia-Horde according to our reconstruction, - captured nearly all the world.
We found out that on the pages of the famous works of "antique" Roman authors – for example, of Titus Livius, - MUCH IS TOLD WITH RESPECT ABOUT VIRGIN MARY, A MOTHER OF CHRIST. We remind that according to our studies (see the book "Tsar of the Slavs") Christ is described in the Byzantine chronicles as imperator Andronicus from the XII century A.D., and in Russian – as the great Russian prince Andrew the Pious (partly). So, if we speak about the worldly history, the issue is about the mother of Byzantine imperator Andronicus the Oldest. WE FOR THE FIRST TIME PROVIDE THE ANCIENT WORLDLY SOURCES, WITH THE WORDS OF COEVALS TELLING ABOUT HOLY MOTHER. In particular, a statement of the Scaligerian version, that Holy Mary was described by the coevals allegedly only in the religious sources and nearly didn't reflect on the pages of "antique" worldly literature of that epoch, is disproved. The opened by us data throw a new bright light on the life of Holy Mary.
We show that imperator Andronicus-Christ was reflected also on the pages of the famous "antique" authors – Titus Livius and Plutarch. We remind that the Scaligerian version insists that Christ was described by his coevals only in the church sources and nearly not described on the pages of "antique" worldly literature. In other words, the Scaligerian historians state that allegedly nobody from the worldly chroniclers-coevals of Christ considered necessary to leave data about him in his chronicle. Or, at least, such data didn't reach us – with rare and doubtful exceptions. In the books "Tsar of the Slavs" and "Beginning of the Hordian Russia" we showed that it was far not so. It appeared that Andronicus-Christ was well known to many worldly authors – his coevals, the works of which were quoted, for example, by later historian – Byzantine Nicetas Choniates. Next it appeared that the life of Christ was described not only by the Byzantine worldly writers, but also by the Russian chroniclers. They knew Christ as the great Russian prince Andrew the Pious. And also as apostle Andrew the First Called. Next we showed that many plots of the chronicle "biography" of Andronicus-Christ were included in the "antique" tales about the famous Roman imperator Julius Caesar.
In the present book we considerably widen a list of "antique" worldly texts and authors, much and in detail telling about Andronicus-Christ, and also about tsar-chan Dmitry Ivanovich Donskoy, at the time of which the apostolic Christianity was adopted in the Empire. First of all it is related to the famous books: "The history from the foundation of the City" of Titus Livius and "Comparable Life stories" of Plutarch. It appeared that Christ is known to us today also under two more worldly names. These are – the famous Romulus, the first tsar of "antique" Tsar Rome. And also as Servius Tullius, the sixth, one before the last tsar of Tsar Rome.
In the book "Christianization of Russia" we showed that the famous Battle of Kulikovo of 1380 reflected also in many "antique" primary sources, related today to "the deep antiquity". In particular – in the Bible, "ancient"-Indian epos, "antique" mythology, Roman history. In the present book we provide new bright reflections of the Battle of Kulikovo and its main participants – Dmitry Donskoy and chan Mamay, found by us in "The History" of Titud Livius and the Bible. This lets us brighter lighten the great religious battle for establishment of the apostolic Christianity in the Great = "Mongol" Empire. Now a description of the Battle of Kulikovo becomes considerably more detailed, as we added to the known earlier sources about it the new ones, which were wrongly related to absolutely different epochs and events of "the far past". Now, when historical events and their descriptions started "to take their places" in a proper way, many things in the history became clear.
In our books on chronology we many times told that in the ancientry the texts were often written without vowels or missing most of them. It is known that in the Arabic written language, for example, vowels nearly disappeared. But in the other languages the vowels, especially in the names, were very unreliable. See details in our books "Foundations of the history" and "Methods". In the present book a reader will meet our attempts of reading of the old names based on the skeleton of the consonants. Sometimes it could seem unreasoned. Of course in our time there is a habit for equally clear reproduction of vowels and consonants in written language. But here the issue is going not about the modern, but about the old texts, in which a skeleton of the consonants of the word was much more stable than the surrounding it vowels. Of course, there is no sense to interpret the old names without any preliminary directing considerations. But they appear after the restoration of the correct chronology by means of mathematical and astronomical methods. Next, comparing the corresponding to each other "antique" and medieval events, we finally manage to understand - "who with who" and "what with what" was identified. Only after this a possibility to reconstruct the initial sounding of not vocalized names in the old texts opens.
We repeat that all the provided in the book linguistic parallels are secondary. They don't prove anything themselves and get sense just as an addition to our precise chronological results. That is when the historical picture is already restored with the other methods and tells us – which exactly from the possible interpretation of the old names suits best of all.
In the present book we refer to our seven volumes "Chronology. First Canon", containing a fundament of the New Chronology and published in 2004-2006 by publishing house RIMIS, Moscow. The seven volumes consist of the following books:
1) À.Ò.Fomenko, "Foundations of the history";
2) À.Ò.Fomenko, "Methods";
3à) À.Ò.Fomenko, V.V.Kalashnikov, G.V.Nosovskiy, "Stars" ("The stars of Almagest");
3á) À.Ò.Fomenko, Ò.N.Fomenko, G.V.Nosovskiy, "Stars" ("The stars of Zodiac");
4) À.Ò.Fomenko, G.V.Nosovskiy, "New chronology of Russia";
5) À.Ò.Fomenko, G.V.Nosovskiy, "Empire";
6) À.Ò.Fomenko, G.V.Nosovskiy, "Biblical Russia";
7) À.Ò.Fomenko, G.V.Nosovskiy, "Reconstruction".
See ÕÐÎÍ1, ÕÐÎÍ2, ... , ÕÐÎÍ7 in the list of literature.
We are thankful to Ò.N.Fomenko and N.D.Gostev for valuable ideas, notes and additions.
2006, Moscow, Lomonosov Moscow State University