A.T.Fomenko , G.V.Nosovskiy
HOW IT WAS IN REALITY

Chapter 4.
THE EPOCH OF THE XIII CENTURY

4. THE EXPANTION OF THE EMPIRE.

So, in the beginning of the XIV century the two brothers – Ivan (Batu Khan) and Georgiy (Genghis Khan) Danilovichi – were the czars-khans of the Great Empire. The creation of the empire was reflected in various 'ancient' documents of the 'antiquity'. In particular, it contributed to the legend of the foundation of the famous 'ancient' Rome, allegedly in the VIII century BC by the brothers Romulus and Remus, descendants of king Aeneas.

The most important political aim for the czars-khans of Russia-Horde of the XIII-XIV cc. – aka the 'ancient' Roman Empire – becomes the reinstatement and the significant expansion of the Czar-Grad Empire of the XI-XII cc. Russia-Horde was naturally considered by the people as the successor to Ancient Romea, because it was Russia, where king Aeneas-John = Ryurik, the representative of the former Czar-Grad = Trojan = Jerusalem dynasty, arrived to. The other parts of the former Romaic Kingdom in the XIII century were engulfed in the strife.

As we already said, at the end of the XIII – beginning of the XIV cc. the conquest of the world instigates from Russia-Horde. We call it the 'first wave'. It was not so much a question of military occupation of distant realms, populated mainly by isolated tribes or entirely undeveloped, but more akin to the reclaiming and absorbing of them into the Empire. Various ancient authors – for example, John Malalas or Mauro Orbini – inform us that the MAJORITY OF THE REGIONS OF EURASIA AND AFRICA DURING THAT EPOCH WERE STILL SCARCELY POPULATED. That is why the armies of the Russia-Horde, which were irrevocably spreading out in different directions from the Volga River, would settle in as yet undeveloped territories and establish new cities and new civilisations there. We would like to repeat that it was a rather peaceful colonization, including that of the vacant territories of Western Europe. A large part of the settlers-Cossacks was sent to Africa and Asia, including India and China. The Horde reclamation of India of that epoch is known to us from the ancient sources as the appearance of the famous 'Aryans' and the creation of the Aryan-Indian civilization in Hindustan. The Cossacks (i.e. the Israelites), who came to Egypt, here established the Mamelukes dynasty, described later in the history of 'Ancient' Egypt under the name of the 'ancient' Hyksos. This migration from the centre of the Horde Empire in all different directions was later described in various chronicles as DIASPORA or THE GREAT TRANSMIGRATION OF PEOPLES, as the great Slavic conquest, as the rise of Babylon, etc. In the Bible Russia-Horde (Israel) is also described as militant Assyria. Titus Livy and the other 'ancient' authors describe the same events as the rise of Royal Rome and the conquest of the world.

In the epoch of the XIV century the firearms were invented, which provided the armies of Russia-Horde with an overwhelming military advantage for a long time. Sergiy Radonezhskii (Sergey Radonezhsky) (aka Berthold Schwarz) was the inventor of the canon. For the first time canons were used on a large scale in the Battle of Kulikovo in 1380 []

The Empire encompassed practically the entire Eurasia and a great part of Africa, including South Africa, African Egypt, and the Nile Valley, where traditionally the Empire's ancestral Royal cemetery was situated. As we have said earlier, the choice of location, among other things was also due to the unique conditions in Egypt. A dry and hot climate facilitated a good preservation of the remains. Here – the embalmed Hordian czars-khans, their relatives, court nobility, governors, etc.- were transported post-mortem on the Hordian ships (called strugi)- across the Mediterranean Sea = the 'ancient river Styx'. The embalming itself was invented to preserve the bodies of the deceased during a lengthy transportation from the locations situated far from the African Egypt. Those who died in Egypt did not necessarily have to be embalmed. There, in the white-hot sands, the mummification takes place without any embalmment.

In other words, various famous Egyptian burials of pharaohs and other burials in Egypt (in Luxor for example) which are known today, are the graves of the eminent and distinguished people of the Horde Empire.

By contrast, the burials of the 'Russian czars and czaritsas', allegedly of the pre-Romanovs epoch, which today are on display in Arkhangelsky Monastery of Moscow Kremlin, are forged, created by order of the Romanovs in the course of them re-score the Russian history in the 'correct' key [4v.2)].

 

5. SCYTHIA WAS CALLED SCOTIA, I.E. SCOTLAND.

The spelling of SCYTHIA was also used for SCOTLAND, as the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle tells us [4v2], ch.3, ch.6:11. The words SCYTHIA and SCOTIA are almost identical.

We attribute the origin of the name SCOTLAND from SCYTHIA by the fact that the 'Mongol' conquest also swept through the insular England. Here arrived the Scythians and founded the cities and the state. This is the genesis of the name Scotland.

Let's address the mediaeval ENGLISH sources. What did they call Scotland? It turns out - SCOTIA and GUTLONDE, i.e. a COUNTRY OF GOTHS = GUT-LONDE [517], [4v2], ch.3:1.5. It corresponds wonderfully with our reconstruction.

We have to add almost nothing ourselves. It is enough simply to quote the source materials accurately. We suggest taking a look at the mediaeval records from the perspective of the common sense and the new chronology.

6. A WONDERFUL CONSISTENCY IN THE LOCATIONS OF THE OLD CAPITALS.

If the Horde = 'Roman' colonization of Europe, Asia and Africa took place so recently and systematically enough, then some consistency in the location of the imperial colonial centres = the future capitals, should have manifested itself. Let us imagine ourselves in the place of a khan-czar who has to swiftly and sensibly organize the effective ruling over recently conquered vast territories. Many of them, according to Mauro Orbini [617], 'WERE YET TO BE DEVELOPED AT THAT TIME [5v1], ch.9. There were a few locals there. For example, Orbini claims that when the Slavic army arrived to Holland for the first time IT WAS STILL A DESOLATE UNDEVELOPED COUNTRY [617].

Most likely the command outposts – vicariates - were set up along the trade routes of the empire. Not randomly, but in the same specific distances. Naturally, the location didn't always allow for this, but something like it was aimed for. What was the benefit of that? At the very least such system would introduce some logical order for trading, postal and courier services. The Khan was able to approximately know how long it would take the couriers to deliver an order from the capital of the Empire to any given region. Long distances were measured by, let's say, thousands of versts (versta - a Russian unit of distance equal to 1.067 kilometres (0.6629 mile)). It was, for example, one thousand versts to the 'closest' colonial centres. To the next ones – two thousand. And so on. It is a simple and naturally-occurring idea for the Empire which was rapidly extending its boundaries towards little developed territories. Thus acted 'ancient Rome' in the Scaligerian history. Meaning, that was the way the "Mongol' Empire acted. It would cast something like a web over the geographical map, in the intersections of which, along the rays emanating from the centre, would appear the local command outposts fig.24 [4v2], ch.2. Of course over time some of them would make way for other outposts, which would appear later and for other reasons. Besides, this pattern was also affected by geography – seas, mountains, rivers and wetlands.

It would be interesting to see if any, even vague traces of such a regular pattern still remain. If our hypothesis is correct, then many of the present day capitals should be broadly situated on a number of peripheries with the same centre, fig 24. The location of the centre would point us to where the capital of the Empire, which at some point colonized and developed Eurasia, was situated. Could it happen to be the Italian Rome? It is difficult to foresee. Only the calculations can provide us with the answer.

Let us take a modern globe. Specifically, a globe and not a flat map, which distorts the actual distances. Let us mark the present day European and Asian capitals on the globe: Amman, Amsterdam, Ankara, Athens, Baghdad, Beirut, Belgrade, Berlin, Bern, Bratislava, Brussels, Budapest, Bucharest, Warsaw, Vienna, Damascus, Dublin, Geneva, Jerusalem, Kabul, Copenhagen, Lisbon, London, Luxembourg, Madrid, Moscow, Nicosia, Oslo, Paris, Prague, Rome, Sofia, Istanbul, Stockholm, Tehran, Tirana, Helsinki. Let us choose on a map an arbitrary point, which we will be changing later, and calculate the distance between this point and all the 37 capitals. We will get 37 numbers. We would like to stress that the distances are being measured on the globe, i.e. the earth surface, and not the flat distorting map.

Let us see, if the set point could be the centre of a number of circumferences, along which all, or nearly all the specified cities are situated. If not, let us set a different point. This way we can try to search through different points on the globe. It is clear that if the capitals are scattered randomly, i.e. they were emerging independently from each other, then there will be no central point. But if the capital were emerging the way we have described it, then the central point might occur. It is interesting to see where it might be. Could it be the Italian Rome? That would be natural for the Scaligerian history. Or could it be Istanbul? Which would mean that it was the Romaic Kingdom which at some point developed and populated Europe. Or maybe the centre was situated in Vladimir and Suzdal Russia? This is what our reconstruction claims. The only thing which remains to be done is to conduct technically uncomplicated, though cumbersome calculations.

The answer is as follows. Indeed, there exists a centre, respective of which nearly all the indicated capitals line-up around two peripheries of circles in the best possible way. This point is the city of Vladimir in Russia, fig.25. Incidentally, isn't it the reason why it is called Vladimir, meaning The Master of the World? This work was conducted by A.U. Ryabtsev - a professional cartographer (city of Moscow).

So, the result demonstrates that THE GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION OF THE MAJORITY OF THE EUROPEAN AND ASIAN CAPITAL BARES TRACES OF A CERTAIN ANCIENT ORDER. It manifests itself in the concentric pattern of most of the capitals around a single centre – the Russian city of Vladimir. Of course, such a pattern could have occurred accidentally. Nevertheless, our findings provide a perfect justification of the location of the capitals. The vast territories of Eurasia were developed and populated during the 'Mongol' conquest of the XIV century. Vladimir and Suzdal Russia was at its centre. The civilization encompassed the vast territories while creating the Eurasian Empire with transport routs, central government and strong administration. The future local capitals began to emerge in the intersections of the system of transport routs created according to a strict scheme, along the concentric circles around the centre - at approximately equal distance from it [4v2], ch.2:18.

7. THE STRUCTURE OF THE HORDE EMPIRE.

In the XIV–XVI cc. all the regions of the Empire – including areas at a considerable distance from the Russia-Horde - were ruled by the governors subjected to the supreme Hordian czar-khan. The Western European chronicles called him the Emperor, deeming him to be the only one in the world. They are quite correct about that. The attitude of the Empire's provinces towards Russia-Horde and its czars was very respectful and sometimes would verge on idolatry. For instance, in the Mediterranean resorts there would appear some myths and legends about the mighty and ubiquitous gods, feasting on the distant and unreachable Olympus. Some of these legends found their way onto the pages of the chronicles. Later they were declared by the historians to be 'very ancient'.

The reasons for Russia-Horde becoming the metropolitan country of the Great Empire are clear. A significant portion of the wealth and natural resources of the entire planet are concentrated there. Being well aware of it, the khans-czars of Russian-Horde created a powerful army not so much as to guard the wealth, but to build a large and well organized Kingdom based on it. Since then it was the military power that became the most important characteristic of Russia-Horde = the biblical Assyria (Syria) = Israel. Given that, in the provinces of the Empire in Western Europe for example, a particular attention was paid to the production of 'consumer goods'. The products of this labour were distributed throughout the entire Empire. Something or other was supplied to Russia-Horde.

In that distant epoch there were no nations or ethnic groups that exist in our time. They formed only in the XVII-XVIII cc. after the schism of the Empire. During its existence the Empire created a number of 'sacred' languages for both writing down Holy Scripture and for the national documentation. They were – the Egyptian hieroglyphs = ancient 'Jewish' hieratical language of priests; then Arabic; Mediaeval Greek; the Church Slavonic. The 'ancient' Latin and 'ancient' Greek languages were created later, in the epoch of the dissolution of the Empire, based mainly on the Church Slavonic language. The spoken languages in Russia were Russian (i.e. the simplified Church Slavonic language) and the Turkic (Tatar) languages. In the presence of a strong autocratic power the fundamental idea of the 'Mongol' Kingdom was the unity of the countries and nations which were a part of it.

In the vast territories of the Empire – in Egypt, Northern Africa, Europe, America, Asia – in the XIII-XVI cc. there spread a megalithic style of gigantic structures, made of synthetic stone. In particular - geopolymer concrete, imitating natural granite, diorite and other igneous rocks. This includes the colossal pyramids and temples of Egypt, the enormous American Maya pyramids, grandiose constructions and castles of the Middle East, imposing structures like Stonehenge in England, France, etc. The rapturous speculations of the historians about the supposedly many thousands of slaves, who allegedly for decades toiled at the erection of the Egyptian pyramids, for example – these are the fantasies of the XVII-XX cc. The pyramids and many other enormous structures of 'antiquity' were made of concrete. Building them was certainly not a simple matter, but it was carried out by a comparatively small amount of qualified labourers in a fairly short amount of time.

After the Trojan War of the XIII century, in the epoch of the 'first wave' of the great conquest the 'Mongols' = the great ones create powerful fortification systems all over the Empire. For example, a network of the famous castles of 'Qatar' = Scythian castles in Western Europe. In particular a great number of them survive in France: fortress of Montsegur, Carcassonne and many more. Similar fortresses-castles were erected in the Middle East, in particular on the territory of modern Syria. The historians consider them to be the work of the Crusaders. On the whole they are right. But it is necessary to clarify that they are referring to the Horde-crusaders of the XIII-XIV cc., who came from Russia-Horde and who were spreading the Christian faith in all directions. Among the Crusaders' castles of the Middle East you can see some really enormous constructions, like the famous castles Krak (des Chevaliers) and Macabre, the might and the ingenious engineering solution of which still impress today, despite the fact, that in the epoch of the Ataman (Ottoman) conquest, i.e. the 'second wave', many of these fortresses were badly damaged. However, their main disintegration fell in the times of the Reformation of the XVI-XVII cc, when the raging rioters were wrecking crushing the Horde-'Mongolian' castles in the provinces of the Empire which had broken away from the metropolitan country.

In the epoch of the XIV-XVI cc. the network of fortifications built throughout the entire Empire provided strict order. The Cossack-Horde military camps (including cavalry) were stationed within the castles, they controlled the vast territories and collected taxes.

Many of the castles were built on the top of the hills, mountains, rocky ridge for the visibility range and control over the transport routs. The soldiers, who served in these fortresses all over the Great Empire, began to be known as the Greben Cossacks, which meant: those sitting on the 'edge of the mountain'.

In the metropolitan country of the Empire, i.e. in Russia-Horde, a czar and the princes usually resided in the centre of the city, among their fellow citizens. For themselves personally the rulers would build a kremlin, surrounded with a motte-and-bailey. Moscow is such an example. There were no separate military castles built outside of the Russian-Horde cities.

An entirely different story unfolded in various lands colonized by the Horde. There the arriving Cossacks found themselves among the local foreign population. To control the vast territories the remote castles-fortresses were built, i.e. situated outside of the settlements and cities. In these mighty fortifications, usually on top of hills and mountains, the Hordian military camps were situated with their cavalry, ammunition, weaponry, etc. Hence the Hordian governors ruled the occupied regions. Thus the 'Mongol' elite and military would initially settle, on the whole, separately from the locals, not mixing with them. Of course in the future they would integrate and the original customs would be forgotten. So it was the necessity of the control over the Imperial provinces which would explain the presence of the considerable amount of the remote castles in Western Europe, in Syria, etc. and the absence of them in Russia, where the surrounding population was native.

In the XIII-XIV cc. the ruling establishment of the Empire professed the Royal, Hereditary Christianity. The regime of the czars-khans was indisputable and absolute. There were no rivals or competitors. The ruling class did not fear anybody. Alongside the military style of the castles-fortresses an opulent architectural style blossomed, known as the 'classical'. The massive circus-amphitheatres, temples with tall colonnades, gigantic palatial complexes, such as the legendary Palmyra and Apameia on the territory of Syria. There public worship took place, to here both the 'Mongol' czars-khans themselves and their numerous governors with their courts would arrive for celebrations.

In the XV century the Great Empire enveloped practically the entire populated world of that time. This empire is known to us from the Scaligerian history as the worldwide Empire of Karol V, i.e. the Fifth King. For a reason it was said in the old chronicles that 'the sun never sets on' his Empire. The chroniclers were not mistaken here. Having set on Asia and Europe, the sun would rise in America.

Some chronicles called the metropolitan country of the Empire, i.e. Russia-Horde of the XIV-XVI cc. - Israel. A czar-khan ruled over the kingdom from Vladimir and Suzdal Russia. The other part of the Empire allied to Russia, which appeared as a result of the conquest of the XV century, was The Ottoman Empire-Ottomania.

Czar-Grad became its capital in 1453. The Ottoman Empire-Ottomania was called Judaea. It was under these names - Israel and Judaea – that the two main parts of the 'Mongol' Empire are reflected in the pages of the Bible. The Ottoman Empire-Ottomania was called Judaea also because Czar-Grad = Biblical Jerusalem was its capital. According to the Bible, Jerusalem was situated in Judaea and was its capital.

Despite its vast territories, the 'Mongol' Empire for a long time existed as a single state. Since the XIII century Christianity was the doctrine of the Empire. However, Christianity in its modern sense, i.e. - the Apostles' Christianity – was adopted as a state religion only after the dramatic Battle of Kulikovo in 1380. In this battle the Russian-Hordian prince Dmitriy Donskoy – the Roman Emperor Constantine I the Great defeated the followers of the other Christian branch with khan Mamai, aka Ivan Velyaminov of the Russian chronicles, at the head of it.

In the Apostles' monasteries in Russia gunpowder and cannons were invented. The first cannons were wooden and were made of the oak trunks. The inventor of cannons is Holy Sergii Radonezhsky (the Western chroniclers called him Berthold Schwarz). The invention of this new incredible weapon was used intelligently by the Apostles' Christians in their fight against the emperors-'heretics'. In a critical moment the Battle of Kulikovo, the canons were put at the disposal of Dmitriy Donskoy = Constantine the Great, who acted in support of the Apostles' Christianity. His opponents, the believers in the 'Royal' Christianity united under the banners of khan Mamai = Ivan Veliaminov. The main military forces of the Empire were on their side. They didn't have a slightest doubt in their victory. On Dmitriy's = Constantine the Great's side only the militia assembled. But at the same time they had fire arms – cannons, which the enemy did not know about. It was those cannons = the 'Christian weapon' – which decided the battle. They possibly not so much defeated as inspired terror in the enemy. Dmitriy's victory was perceived by his contemporaries as a miracle. Having won, he made the Apostles' Christianity the state religion of the entire Empire [4v1], ch.6.

As we have said earlier, the Battle of Kulikovo by no means took place in the suburbs of the city of Tula, as think the historians, but in the location of present day Moscow, the future capital of the great Empire. In 1380 Moscow was still a small settlement. The field of Kulikovo was situated near the Moscow River, between the rivers Yauza and Neglinka, close to the present day Slavyanskaya square. See our reconstruction of Dmitriy Donskoy's (Constantine the Great) and Khan Mamai's (Maxentius = Licinius = Ivan Velyaminov) troops' movement in fig.26, fig.27.

The structure of the Christian Great Empire was very flexible due to the lack of an efficient communications infrastructure. The Hordian governors ruled in the provinces. In particular their responsibilities included the tax collection and prompt shipment of it to the metropolitan country. The Hordian Cossack military camps were stationed in the main cities and settlements and ensured order and the smooth collection of tax. The steady trade was running smoothly between various regions of the Empire. That is why in the provinces there evolved different areas of specialism – some countries had better developed agriculture (for example – Southern and Central Europe), some were good at ship building (for example, England and Spain), in some - blossomed medicine, literature and the arts on the whole (for example, in Italy), and in other there emerged 'resort' leisure zone (for example, in the South of France), etc. However, the accomplishments of all the regions of the Empire steadily contributed to the common 'Imperial piggy bank'.

The Czar-khan Dmitriy Donskoy = the Emperor Constantine the Great in the end of the XIV century moves the capital of the Empire from Russia to the Bosporus, to the suburbs of Czar-Grad = Biblical Jerusalem, where Andronicus-Christ was crucified. A new city - Constantinople - is being built here, and thus emerges the second capital of the Great Russian Mediaeval Empire. A part of the Royal court and a great number of people left for the new place with the czar. This event is known from the history text books as Constantine the Great moving the capital from the 'Old Rome' in the IV century (i.e. from Vladimir and Suzdal Russia, as we understand it now) to the 'New Rome' in the Bosporus, to the city of Byzantium. In Russia, in the first capital, there remained its own rulers. In the beginning the relations between those who stayed and those who left were peaceful. The main military forces of the Empire as before were situated in Russia, known as Israel. Czar-Grad became a new religious centre of the Empire. The area around it was referred to as Judaea. This prevailed for approximately 50-70 years. However, soon a new occurrence presented itself, without precedent. We will talk about it later.


8. FLORENCE, ROME, VATICAN.

In the end of the great Slavic conquest of the XIV century, the Russian czars-khans established their domination over Western Europe. In particular, Horde has occupied and populated Italy. The Russians make Florence their capital in Italy. Thus in the first half of the XIV century in Italy there appear the Etruscan (the Russians). Among other things, they laid a foundation of a small town in Italian Lazio, which will later be called by the great name of Rome. Incidentally, it is deemed that 'the name of the new city itself –'Roma' – is Etruscan in its origin [106], p.46. I.e. – Russian.

In the XIV century there were no popes in Italy yet. They appeared there much later, in the middle of the XV century [] Possibly, Ivan Kalita had his field headquarters at the site of the future Italian Rome.

As the Slavic conquest of the XIV century took place as early as in the epoch of the Royal Christianity, the rulers of the Empire were deified. In particular, Ivan Kalita (Khalif), aka the legendary Pop Ivan or Prester John, was a czar-god. The czars-gods of that time were the supreme rulers of the state and the church simultaneously. I.E. THEY WERE KHALIFS or POPES. That is why the royal headquarters were, among other things, of utmost ecclesiastical importance. But when the czar was leaving it, the quarters would lose its significance. Nevertheless, in the place of the Royal quarters, as a rule, there would emerge the significant cities, proud of their history. Thus it was with the Italian Rome.

At first after the conquest of the early XIV century there could be no dispute between Florence and future Italian Rome. A small town left by the czar could not compete with a large and wealthy capital – Florence.

The situation took a twist in the middle of the XV century, when after the fall of Constantinople in 1453 the Italian Rome became a refuge for a part of the Constantinople's nobility fleeing the Ottoman conquest. The boyars from the immediate Royal entourage brought with them great wealth and kept their heads down for a while waiting for a right moment to begin their fight for the lost world domination. Since they needed to have some kind of plausible facade under which they could have existed for the time being, they seized the Vatican episcopal see and called their leaders popes. Though, up till the middle of the XVI century those popes were purely military people. They called the city where they settled Rome, as their old homeland was The New Rome – Constantinople. However, the fortification which they built for themselves, they called by the city's old name – Vatican.

Thus in the middle of the XV century a new history of the Italian Rome and Vatican began. In the XVI-XVII cc. the popes overcame the opposition of the rest of the Italian cities, including Florence. Rome became Italy's main city.

With the ascent of the popes in the XVI century in Italy there ended the Etruscan epoch and commenced a New-Roman epoch. Later all of this was deliberately dated (on paper) to deep antiquity. It was in the XVI-XVII cc. at the popes' court that the false version of history started to be created []

So, there were several 'foundations of Rome', and they were all in different locations. As a reminder, the first is the founding of the Old Rome circa X century in the African Egypt in the Nile Delta. The second Rome was founded in the Bosporus circa the XI century. The third kingdom of Rome of Romulus and Remus (i.e. the famous 'ancient' Royal Rome, described by Titus Livy) was founded by Aeneas and his descendants in Russia-Horde of the XIII century [] The Italian Rome was founded circa 1380.

 

9. TIN, COPPER, BRONZE.

It is well known that the manufacture of tin is more complex than that of copper. That is why bronze, as alloy of copper and tin, must have appeared LATER than the invention of tin. In the Scaligerian history the situation is a completely the reverse. At first, allegedly, there was the invention of bronze. That is how the Bronze Age 'came about'. And supposedly only later tin, which is much more complex to produce, was invented. A contradiction occurred in the Scaligerian history. As a result, the 'ancient' Greek heroes strike each other with bronze swords, the production of which would require the 'yet to be invented' tin. The present day chemists are certainly surprised by such Scaligerian fantasies and are sincerely trying to guess the reasons for such oddities. In fact, the bronze century falls within the epoch of the XIV-XVI cc., when the production of tin was already invented. Certainly, after copper [1v], ch.1.

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