A.T.Fomenko , G.V.Nosovskiy
HOW IT WAS IN REALITY

Chapter 5.
THE EPOCH OF THE XV CENTURY

1. THE GOLDEN AGE OF THE EMPIRE.

In the XV century the expansion of the 'Mongol' Empire and the development of new lands started by Russia-Horde in the XIV century were continued on a new level. In the Bible it is described as the beginning of the conquest of the Promised Land by the Prophet Moses' army. His troops came out of Russia-Horde, i.e. the Biblical 'Egypt'. In the Ostrog Bible, for instance, there are many 'Northern traces' (frost, snow, ice…) in the description of Moses' journey. In the later edition of the Bible the 'Northern traces' were erased more thoroughly. The exodus of the Israelites from Egypt is the beginning of the second wave of the Russian-Horde world conquest. In this instance the Bible replaced the name of Russia-Horde of the XIV-XVI cc. with the name 'Egypt'. Incidentally the word ISRAELITE can be translated as a FIGHTER FOR GOD, and JUDEAN is ONE WHO PRAISES GOD [544]. These are not the names of the people as we believe today, but positive epithets. The ISRAELITES–FIGHTERS FOR GOD essentially means the same as CRUSADERS – 'cross baring warriors', warriors for God.
In the XV century the troops of Russia-Horde = Israel and its allies – The Ottoman Empire = Judaea cross the Atlantic ocean in large ships, appear in America and reclaim large swathes of the continent. This epic expedition is reflected in the chronicles as the discovery of the America, the famous voyage of Columbus, the great exodus of the Israelites from Spain at the end of the XV century, and in the pages of the Bible as the patriarch Noah's voyage across the 'great waters'.
The other Russian-Horde troops arrived to North America from Siberia and Far East via Alaska, crossing the Bering Strait. As a result, on the continent of America in the XIV-XVI cc. there emerges the Hordian civilizations of Maya, Aztecs and Inca. Mistakenly dated today as deep antiquity. In the epoch of the XIV-XVI cc. the famous American cities, temples and pyramids are being erected.

2. THE RISE OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE. THE OTTOMANS, I.E. COSSACK ATAMANS.
(or HETMANS – military rank in Cossack regiment).

The Ottoman Empire is sometimes called the Ottoman Empire, however we stick with its old name – The Ataman Empire. In the Russian documents of the XV-XVI cc. the first sultan – the empire was named after - was called OTOMAN or ATAMAN. The historian of the XVII century Andrey Lyzlov, the author of the 'History of the Scythians', when talking about the Ottoman Empire in detail, uses the term ATAMAN or OTOMAN. He writes 'ATAMAN - FOREBEAR - FATHER OF THE TURKIC SULTANS' [497], p.283. Ataman is a widely known name for the Cossack chiefs. As it says in the mediaeval 'Notes of janissary', the Turkic sultan was called a 'son of hetmans' [424], p.115. Thus it is directly pointed out that the name of the forebear of the Turkic sultans Ataman (Ottoman) meant nothing else but Hetman, i.e. the Cossack Ataman. The words Hetman and Ataman just slightly differ in the pronunciation.

3. THE UNION OF THE TWO STATES: RUSSIA-HORDE AND THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE=ATAMANIA.
THE BIBLICAL CONQUEST OF THE PROMISED LAND IS THE HORDE-ATAMAN CONQUEST OF THE XV CENTURY

Approximately a hundred years into the Russian-Horde Empire's existence, its rulers fell victim to the unprecedented consequences of their own excellent and far reaching communications routes. As a result of the fast development of the road networks spanning the vast territories, the epidemics which from time to time broke out in the south of the Empire would now easily spread over the entire Eurasia. The deadly diseases – plague, cholera and others – became an inevitable price for the unification under the sole rule of Europe, Asia and Africa. But the wider the area ravaged by the disease, the more rampant and rife it became. It was necessary to seek a solution.
It was found by way of the introduction of administrative borders between the North and South regions of the Empire. As a result, besides Veliky Novgorod in Russia-Horde there emerges a second centre – Czar-Grad on the Bosphorus. The ancient city has again become a capital, this time of the southern regions of the Empire. So the authorities made an emergency resolution about the compulsory decontamination of those provinces where infection was raging. Many territories of Western and Southern Europe turn out to be as such. These were the regions where the Horde army = Cossacks headed for with the merciless order to annihilate the infected population. And then to repopulate the lands. This is the famous Ataman (Ottoman) conquest of the XV century, Fig.45. See [6v1], ch.4-5.
Thus in the XV century Russia-Horde = Israel was compelled 'for the second time' to send their army to the South and to the West. They were conquering the territories which had already been conquered before. Where, since the beginning of the XIV century, the Horde's rulers-governors already had their armed forces. They of course didn't want to be annihilated. However, the cleansing was carried out rather meticulously. The new governors were placed in the territories of Europe and Asia conquered for the second time. In Russian history the mark of these events remained as an extensive distribution of the 'Novorod's territories' to the boyars, boyars' children, noblemen and the best serfs. [6v1], ch.5:10.
So, in the place of Ancient Romea in the year 1453 emerged the Empire allied to Russia-Horde – The Ottoman Empire=Atamania = Judaea, Fig.46. These events were described in the Biblical Books: Exodus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, The Book of Joshua. The Israelites' march under the leadership of Moses and Joshua Ben Nun – is Russia-Horde's and The Ottoman Empire=Atamania's invasion of Europe and Eurasia in general. The cleansing of many territories is described as the annihilation of the local population by the Israelite army during the conquest of the Promised Land. The Israelites (the fighters for God) of the epoch of the Old Testament are the huge armies of Russia-Horde and The Ottoman Empire-Atamania. The Judaeans (the ones who praise God) are the priests and the chroniclers amongst the troops, a social strata of people, who, so to say, looked after the ideological sphere. Czar-Grad, the city where Andronicus-Christ was crucified, became the centre of Judaea.
'Ancient Hellas' is also the reflection of the Great Empire. The name of Hellas itself is a version of the word HORDE, as letters L and R often interchanged: Horde or Olda ---> Hellas.

4. WESTERN EUROPE UNDER THE RULE OF RUSSIA-HORDE AND THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE-=ATAMANIA.

In the XV century Western Europe continues to be a part of the Empire. Europe is divided between Veliky Novgorod and Constantinople. The Imperial taxes are being collected all over Europe, Africa and Eurasia. Recent historians called it 'sultan's tax'. In every province there was a Hordian governor-king or governor-duke. They all were the subjects of the metropoly of the 'Mongol' Empire, possibly to varying degrees. I.e. subjects of the Emperor. Thus the Western European would call the great czar-khan of Russia-Horde, seated in the distant Veliky Novgorod. There was one Empire, and there was one Emperor. We will repeat, that the name Novgorod was perceived by the Europeans as HAB-S-BURG. I.e. the Habsburgs before Karl V were the Hordian czars of Veliky Novgorod as viewed by the Europeans. They were paid taxes to by the conquered countries. And the Novgorodians split them with the Ataman (Ottoman) sultan. I.e. the taxes collected from the Western Europe, Northern Africa, Asia and America were distributed between the two capitals. It is possible that from the Southern Europe and Northern Africa taxes went mainly to Constantinople.

5. THE BEGINNING OF THE RELIGIOUS SCHISM.

In the XV-XVI cc. there was a visible religious schism in the formerly unified Christianity which split into several large branches: Orthodox Christianity, Islam, Catholicism, Buddhism and Judaism. But these names they would acquire later, only in the XVII-XVIII cc.

All the main religions known today originated from the same root – from the Royal (and later from the Apostolic) Christianity of the XII-XIII cc. This explains the conclusions made by the school of scientists of the XIX century, working in the field of the Comparative Religion. Having processed a vast amount of material they discovered a lot in common between the aforementioned religions. But being constrained by the incorrect chronology, they decided, that the Christianity had absorbed in itself allegedly earlier cults. This is incorrect. On the contrary, the unified Christianity of the XII-XV cc. branched out into several religions. Each of them inherited a considerable part of the former cult, having modified it. The previously universal symbolism was also divided. A broad cross began to be used by the Orthodox Church; a narrow cross – by the Catholic Church; a six-pointed star – also another form of the cross – by Judaism; a crescent with a star – also another form of the cross – by Islam. So in the XV-XVI cc. the following branches-religions began to differentiate.

1) THE ORTHODOX CHRISTIANITY, probably the closest to the original religion of the XII-XIV cc., spiritually chaste and austere. Ancient Russia becomes the centre of the Orthodox Christianity. The Orthodox Christianity prevails in the Balkans and in the East. In the past it was called Capholic or Catholic. Thus the term 'Catholic' changed its meaning in the XVI-XVII cc. From the term meaning one whole Christianity it has narrowed to meaning only the Western-European Catholicism, separated only in the XVI-XVII cc.

2) ISLAM OR THE MUSLIM FAITH – in the East, originally very close to Christianity. Also a very strict and ascetic religion.

3) CATHOLICISM – predominantly in the West. It moved away from the original reserved religion. In the XV-XVI cc. Catholicism existed in the form of the 'ancient' Greek and Roman pantheon of the gods with bacchanalian and orgiastic elements. As a consequence of such practices spreading, diseases occurred in some of the countries of Western Europe, which were called venereal diseases after Venus – the goddess of love [544], v.5, [2v1], ch.1:3.

To eliminate such undesirable social consequences a reform of the Western-European religion was required. In some countries the vicarious rulers of the Great Empire introduced the Inquisition [5v1], ch.12:9.4. After the church reforms and successful machinations of the inquisition, the Catholic branch of Christianity acquired the modern form familiar to us today, also very reserved. [5v1], ch.12:10.

4) Another variant of Christianity is Buddhism in the East. India, China, etc.

5) JUDASIM – both in the West and in the East (the Karaims). Originally it was a form of the Royal Christianity. Over time Judaism underwent a profound evolution.

6) The rest – religions that were not so widespread. They 'split off' from the ones mentioned above only in the XVII century, Fig.47.

The Gospels were written at the end of the XII – the beginning of the XIII cc. However in the XIV-XV cc. they were substantially edited. The rest of the Books of the Bible, of both the New and the Old Testaments, were written not earlier than the early XIII century. The editions of the Gospels and the Books of Psalms that exist today date back to the XIV century. The rest of the books of the Old Testament were edited in some instances up to and including the XVII century [6v].

6. THE EMPERORS OF THE GREAT EMPIRE = THE RUSSIAN CZARS-KHANS OF THE XV CENTURY.

&& VASILY I.

Vasily I Dmitriyevich 1389-1425 according to [362], [36], [145]. In the Western chronicles he is reflected as 'Wenceslaus' Habsburg 1378-1400 according to [76]. The name WENCESLAUS could have meant CROWNING GLORY (VENETS SLAVY in Russian) or GLORIOUS CROWN (WREATH), or it could have originated from the Slavs the WENDS, i.e. WENS THE GLORIOUS (WENDY SLAVNYIE in Russian). Hence it is probably the name of the city VENICE.

Under Vassily I the Great Schism erupts in the Universal Church, accompanied by the internecine wars. During the Church Schism in 1415 the Khan supported the Christianity in Russia. From this point onward under Vassily I and under his son Vassily II Vasiliyevich Tyomniy (the Dark or Blind) Christianity becomes more consolidated in Russia. The Famous chronicle Baptism of Russia by Vladimir the Holy (Vladimir the Great) is dated to this epoch. Vassily I is canonized under the name of the Holy Grand Prince Vladimir, baptized Vassily (on the 15 July according to the Julian Calendar).

He is also known in history under the names of: a) Vladimir the Holy (Vladimir Svyatoslavovich) erroneously dated to the X century; b) Vytautas the Grand Duke of Lithuania.

There is a dynastic duplication in Russian history, the shift of approximately 410 years in dates. The early history of Russia is a phantom reflection of its actual history from 1350 to 1600.

&& YURI DMITRIEVICH
He ruled in 1425-1434 according to [362], or 1425-1435 according to [36]. In the Western chronicles he is reflected under the name of 'Robert' Habsburg Palatine or 'Ruprecht of Palatine' 1400-1410 according to [76]. The name 'PALATINE' possibly originates from the Slavic word PALATY meaning Royal Chambers, a palace.

Yuri Dmitrievich, co-ruler and the rival of Vassily II Vassilievich the Dark in the battle for the throne of the Empire. He is known in history also under the names of: a) Svyatopolk, the murderer of Boris and Gleb, erroneously dated to the XI century; b) Sigismund of Lithuania.

Yuri Dmitrievich is constantly fighting his successor Vassily II. This leads to the revolt connected to the succession to the throne act [361], v.5, ch.3, columns 150-154. The confrontation results in Yuri's sudden death, whilst being the Grand Prince and occupying the throne at the time [362], v.5, column 154.

&& VASSILY THE CROSS-EYED.

Ruled in 1434, notably only for one month [362], v.5, column 154; [832], part 3, v.5, p.240. The Western European chroniclers called him the following: Jobst or Jodocus Habsburg or Jodokus, Margrave of Moravia (or Jobst von Mähren) and dated his rule to the year 1410 [940], list 340, reverse side. After his enthronement he was almost immediately dethroned. Deposition was peaceful, without any war.

&& VASSILY II.

Vassily II Vasilievich Tyomny 'The Dark' (or Blind) 1425-1462 (?) according to [36], [362]. According to [145] and [362] ruled from 1450 until 1462. In the Western chronicles reflected as 'Sigismund Habsburg' 1410-1438 according to [76].

The rule of Vassily II is the time of revolts and civil discord. Antagonisms between the various branches of the formerly united church increase, which leads to the internecine religious wars. The attempts to unite the churches at the Council of Florence in Italy in 1438 fail. The Russian Church and the Grand Prince Vassily Vassilievich do not recognize the union. The relations between Veliky Novgorod (Russia) and Constantinople break down. A dreadful plague epidemic breaks out and rages for a long time in the Empire. Its origin – the Southern regions of the Empire. Along the created caravan tracks the disease spreads over vast territories of Eurasia, engulfing the entire Empire.

In Russia they are preparing for the second conquest of Czar-Grad and the South Europe, which starts to break away from the metropoly of the Empire in the religious sense, and besides, became the epicenter of the epidemics. The Ataman (Ottoman) conquest begins. It is successful. In 1453 Constantinople is taken by storm and renamed Istanbul or, to be precise, Stan-Bul, i.e. Stan (CAMP or camping-ground in Russian- Translator's note) of Bulgars or Stan of Babylon.

Vassily II is known in history under the name of Yaroslav the Wise (Mudry), erroneously dated to the XI century. In the Bible the epoch of The Ottoman Conquest is described as the continuation of the conquest of the Promised Land, but now under the leadership of Joshua Ben Nun.

&& DMITRY SHEMYAKA

Dmitry Shemyaka 1446-1450 according to [362], [36]. According to [145] ruled in 1445-1450. In the Western chronicles he is reflected as 'Albert of Austria' 1438-1440 according to [76]. He was as the rival of Vassily II in their battle for the throne of the Empire. Temporarily prevailed and occupied the throne in 1446-150.

On the subject of the title AUSTRIAN see [5v2], ch.9. This is what THE EASTERN KINGDOM was called, i.e. OST+RICKS or OST+REICH = the Eastern state. The name ALBERT may have originated from ALBA = WHITE. In this case Albert of Austria is simply the White Eastern Kingdom.

&& IVAN III.

Ivan III (another name Timofey) Vasilyevich the Great 'Grozny' (the Terrible) 1462-1505 according to [362]. Karamzin notes that Ivan III was called the Terrible [362], v.6, column 215. Ivan III is a phantom reflection of Ivan IV 'The Terrible' of the XVI century with a hundred years chronological shift [6v], ch.5. In the Western Chronicles he was called Habsburg (i.e. Novgorodian) 'Frederick III' 1440-1493 according to [76]. In the Bible Ivan 'the Terrible' reflected as king Nebuchadnezzar.

He came to power as a result of an inter-dynastic battle. In the battle, the Great 'Stand' on Ugra river, he defeated the preceding Grand Prince = khan and occupied the throne of Veliky Novgorod. At that point the metropoly of the Empire is divided into two parts – the Southern Ottomania=Atamania = Judaea, and the Northern Russia-Horde = Israel. The recently conquered Czar-Grad was turned into the second capital of the Empire. The Southern regions of Europe, Africa and Middle East were brought under its subjection. The Northern and Central Europe, Siberia and Asia remained in direct subordination to Veliky Novgorod = Yaroslavl, the throne of which is occupied by Ivan III Vasilyevich.

Ivan III is also known in history under the names of: a) Vsevolod Yaroslavich, erroneously dated to the XI century; b) Casimir of Lithuania.

Ivan III, aka Fredrick III, aka Tamerlane, aka (partial) Mehmed II the Conqueror, who conquered Constantinople, was the Hordian czar-khan [6v]. He conquered many lands in Southern and Western Europe during the Ottoman conquest. The intense antipathy of the Western chroniclers towards Mehmed II is very well known. At a later stage, while creating a 'new history of Europe according to Scaliger', they have multiplied – on paper – one czar-king into 'several rulers'.


7. THE 'MONGOL' EMPIRE AND THE FAMOUS CHRISTIAN KINGDOM OF PRESTER JOHN.

The legendary Kingdom of Prester John is considered to be one of the exciting puzzles in Scaligerian history. The core of the matter is as follows. Mediaeval Western Europe was for some reason strongly convinced in the existence in the East of a vast Kingdom of a certain Christian ruler 'Prester John', THE DESCENDANTS OF WHOM WERE ALLEGEDLY THE GREAT KHANS OF THE 'MONGOL' EMPIRE. The legends of the mysterious Kingdom were spread allegedly since the XII century and particularly blossomed in Europe of the XIII-XV cc. [5v1], ch.8.

The modern historians consider this information to be a fabulous myth of the deluded Europeans. Purporting that there was never such a Kingdom of Prester John. However, this Kingdom is a historical reality: none other but the Russian-Horde Empire. Prester John, i.e. IVAN is IVAN Danilovich Kalita, aka Khan Batuy.

The 'Tatar and Mongol invasion' began with the unification of Russia under the power of the Novgorodian = Yaroslav dynasty of Georgiy (Russian George) the Victorious (Pobedonosets) – Genghis Khan followed by his brother Yaroslav = Khan Batuy = Ivan Kalita-Khalif [4v]. As a result of the chronological shift Ivan Kalita moved down a couple of centuries and turned into allegedly mysterious Prester John. That is why, mixing up the brothers-Hordians, the English chronicles called Genghis Khan – PRESTER JOHN [517], p.185; [4v2], ch.6:16.

Why were the historians perplexed by this 'myth'? The reason is that the Mediaeval Europeans as it happens considered the Kingdom of Prester John to be CHRISTIAN. But today it is generally thought that the 'mongols' were Muslim. That is why it is claimed: the 'Mongol' KHANS COULD NOT HAVE BEEN the descendants of the Christians. In fact, Ivan Danilovicj Kalita-Khalif, of course, was a Christian. As the whole of Russia was Christian in his time.

The Mediaeval legends about the Kingdom of Prester John emphasize its fantastical wealth and undisputed political superiority over the Western rulers [5v1], ch.8.

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