A.T.Fomenko , G.V.Nosovskiy
HOW IT WAS IN REALITY

Chapter 5.
THE EPOCH OF THE XV CENTURY

11. THE ASTONISHING SURGICAL INSTRUMENTS IN POMPEII.

Fig. 48 and fig.49 show the incredible 'ancient' surgical instruments of allegedly I century, discovered during the excavation in Pompeii. The quality and the high technological level are astounding. In fig.48, on the top – dental extracting forceps and foreign body probe. Below - speculum ani, speculum uteris used by the gynecologists. Take notice of the METALIC SHAFT WITH THE MOST PRECISE THREAD! See fig.49. We can see screws inserted in the apertures, and rivets. But for that one needed to know how to drill metal. It means that the metal drills were already popular. So in front of us we see the manufactured articles of not earlier than the XVI century [NOR], ch.6.

The historians write, that when these most 'ancient' objects were found, 'it was the XVIII century, and this set of tools, VERY SIMILAR TO THOSE USED UNTIL NOW (FOR EXAMPLE, THE GYNICOLOGICAL SPECULUM) CREATED A GREAT IMPRESSION, it showed the high development level of the ancient surgery' [674:1], p.218. And further: 'This speculum uteris, used by the gynecologists, shows the highest level of the development of medicine already reached at that time' [674:1], p.149.


12. THE 'ANTIQUE' STATUES WITH THE RIPPLING MUSCLES WERE CREATED NOT EARLIER THAN THE XVI CENTURY.

Let us turn our attention towards the excellent knowledge of the position of human muscles by many 'ancient' sculptors. But such knowledge the sculptors and painters acquired only when the medics began to dig out dead bodies, dissect them and study the anatomy. Even according to the Scaligerian history this didn't start earlier than the XV-XVI cc. From the history of the anatomy it is known that the first realistic and detailed description of human body appeared only in 1534. It was a book by the surgeon Andreas Vesalius [NOR], ch.6. The earlier authors had a good knowledge of human skeletal frame. But their knowledge of muscle position was poor. That is why in the really old images of the XII-XV cc. the people's bodies were depicted with smooth skin without representation of the muscles.

The grave-robbers were always subjected to persecution by both the authorities and ordinary people, who tried to protect the graves of their relatives. The church strongly opposed the grave-robbing. The first grave-robbers often died as they didn't yet know about the ptomaine (post-mortem poison). The grave-robbing on a large scale became possible only in the epoch of the Revolt in the late XVI – early XVII cc (they were looking for treasure). And only later, having studied the anatomy and having understood their disposition under the skin, the painters and the sculptors began to depict the human body in a realistic way. But it probably occurred not earlier than in the end of the XVI century.

Now let us turn to the excavations in Pompeii. It turns out that there were discovered some sculptures and wall frescos with wonderful depictions of the human body muscles, fig.50. Such lavish statues, drawings, frescos and paintings could not have appeared earlier than the XVI century. And most likely, they occurred in the XVII century, during the 'grave-robbing epoch'. Consequently, 'ancient' Pompeii was submerged by the volcanic eruption as late as in the XVI or even XVII cc. [NOR], ch.6.

At the same time on some of the frescos in Pompeii human bodies were depicted without representation of the muscles. Such images could have appeared earlier in the epoch of the XVI-XVII cc., when the anatomical knowledge has not yet been developed. However, the 'smooth bodied' images may date to the XVI-XVII cc., as far from all the Pompeii sculptors had mastered the art of muscular representation which was new for the XVI-XVII cc. Progressive artists began to paint in a new way, but a number of painters still adhered to the old methods, disregarding anatomy.

13. MOSES BEGINS THE OTTOMAN CONQUEST IN THE XV CENTURY.
'PASSAGE OVER THE SEA' IS THE PASSAGE OVER THE RIVER ICE.

As it has already been said, in the XIV-XV cc. due to the expansion of the Empire it was necessary to create extended roads covering a significant part of Eurasia. Infectious diseases began to spread along the roads on a bigger scale than before. If earlier, in the pre-imperial epoch, the epidemics having broken out in one place would die away there, then now the disease could speedily spread over the vast territories. As a result there mass epidemics were breaking out in the Empire.

In face of an absence of medical advances at that time, the Horde authorities were unable to find a medical solution to combat the epidemics. Immunizations and vaccinations in use today were yet to be discovered. In order to stop the catastrophic spreading of the diseases, the 'Mongol' khans sent the army to the South and to the West with an absolute order to exterminate, without exception, the population of the infected regions, to conduct 'cleansing' among the descendants of the first wave of the conquerors, i.e. in essence, their own brothers. In the Bible this major military operation of the XV century was described as the conquest of the 'Promised Land' by Moses, and later by Joshua Ben Nun. Aka Suleiman the Magnificent, a sultan of the XVI century, aka 'ancient' Alexander the Great. It was the 'second wave' of the great conquest of the world. See the Books of the Old Testament Exodus, Joshua, Leviticus.

The Biblical Egypt of the Exodus epoch is Russia-Horde of the XV century. The Biblical 'plague of Egypt' is the reflection of the infamous period of the epidemics and natural disasters in Russia of the first half of the XV century. The Bible effectively contains the dating of the Exodus of Moses - circa the year 1430 [6v1], ch.4. Immediately before the Exodus, the plague of Egypt descends onto the Biblical Egypt = Russia-Horde. The Russian descriptions correspond incredibly well with the analogous stories from the Old Testament.

A new reading of the Bible clarifies a lot of things. Here, for example, is the famous scene of Moses crossing over with the Israelites the 'waters of the Black Sea which moved apart', where the pharaoh's army which was following them sank when the waves surged. The referral to the famous Ostrog Bible, for example, allows us to reconstruct the truth [6v1], ch.4.

The Ostrog Bible unequivocally describes the crossing over the ICE-GLAZED RIVER! It is said very clearly that the WAVES THICKENED, that LIQUID FROZE, TURNED INTO A WALL, that the fighters for God (the Israelites) WALKED ACROSS THE SEA AS IF ON DRY GROUND, IN THE MIDST OF THE SEA ON DRY GROUND. Notably walked ACROSS THE SEA, and not ON THE SEA-FLOOR. The later editors, either not understanding or purposefully eliminating the descriptions of the icy waters, taught us a fantastical idea that purportedly the waters parted and the fighters for God passed between them like between two walls. Today you can see it in films. We have a choice. We can either consider this picture a fairy tale, or to see a true event in it – the crossing of the army across the frozen river. The ice is 'the waters being a wall to them' because of cold. Then the element of a miracle reflected in the Bible can be easily explained. The army crossed the river over the already thin spring ice probably at night, when the ice became slightly thicker. In the morning there could have been an ice drift, turning into an obstruction in the way of the pursuers. They could have stepped out onto the thinning ice and fallen through into the water: 'FELL FULL FATHOMS UNDER' and perished. Such luck the fugitives perceived as a miraculous deliverance. Ice drifting begins abruptly, sometimes unexpectedly. At such a moment, without modern bridges equipped with ice breakers, any contact between the two river banks would be completely lost. It is impossible to cross a major river by boats during an ice drift. If it was, a large river like Volga, for example.

It emerged, that the synodic 'translators' of the Bible edited the ancient text, thoroughly eradicating all the 'traces of the North', snow, ice and frost [6v1], ch.4.

So, Moses 'crossing the sea as on dry ground' is the crossing over of a large river frozen over with ice.

This event produced such a deep impression on the contemporaries, that it was described once more in the Old Testament's Book of Joshua. This time it was presented as the Israelites' army miraculously crossing the river Jordan 'as on dry land'. The narration in this instance is much more detailed as its duplicate in the Book of Exodus, i.e. the story of Moses [PRRK], ch.2.

It emerged that the 'ancient' conquest by Alexander the Great is the reflection of the Ottoman Conquest of the XV century. There appeared a partial overlapping of Alexander over Biblical Joshua Ben Nun. And, as a matter of fact, Joshua Ben Nun is a direct successor of Moses in the conquest of the Promised Land. This is the same epoch. That is why such a dramatic event as the warriors crossing water over the thin ice, was reflected not only in the Book of Exodus, but also in Alexander's 'ancient' biography. Both texts basically narrate the same thing [6v1], ch.4.

In the Bible and in 'Alexandria' (life story of Alexander the Great) the army crossing over ice is intertwined with some battle, either close to a river, or directly on the river ice. The reason, why a number of the pursuers drowned when the ice cracked. There is some indirect evidence that the events took place exactly on the Volga river = Ra (the old name for the Volga river – Translator's note).

So in the Scaligerian history there are at least two famous episodes, when the victory in some battle was won not without the help of the BREAKING ICE. But that's not all. Anyone familiar with the Russian history will immediately remember another story – the famous BATTLE ON THE ICE (or THE BATTLE OF THE LAKE PEIPUS), allegedly in 1241, when the Russian Prince ALEXANDER NEVSKY defeated the Livonians (Germans) on the ice of the Chudskoye ozero (the lake Peipus). The Russian sources give various locations of where the battle took place. Some of them point out Chudskoye ozero, i.e. Pskov region. The other - lake Ladoga (Ladozhskoye ozero) [145], p.165. These two lakes are situated far from each other – approximately 200 kilometers. Thus even the location of the battle raises some questions. During the battle many Livonians drowned in the lake. Possibly as a result of the cracked ice.

Most likely all three of the mentioned above battles are the reflections of the real event in Russia of the XV century.

The narration of the 'ancient' Titus Livy about death of the king Alexander II of Epirus also reflected the famous Battle on the Ice, however in a rather distorted way.

Altogether in the 'History' by T.Livy there emerged three phantom reflections of Battle on the Ice – i.e. Alexander Nevsky's Battle = Moses = Alexander the Great which took place in Russia-Horde, fig.51. More specifically: 1) The Battle of Histria of allegedly 178-174 BC 2) The destruction of the Basternei army on a river due to the cracked ice, allegedly in 175 BC. 3) Death of the king Alexander II of Epirus on a river, allegedly in 326 BC.

We have collected in Fig.52 the main parallels discovered by us between the 'History' by Livy and the history of Russia-Horde of the XIII-XVI cc. There were many of such matches. Respectively, Titus Livy was a chronicler of the 'Mongol' Empire = Russia-Horde of the XIII-XVI cc. [TsRIM], ch.8.

14. THE OTTOMAN CONQUEST AND AUSTERE ANICONISM
(In religion, opposition to the use of icons or visual images to depict living creatures or religious figures – Translator's note)

In the XV century between the Empire's two capitals, between the Horde-Ottoman (or Ataman) authorities of Russia-Horde and the heirs of Constantine the Great = Dmitry Donskoy in Czar-Grad there occurred some tension. The Russia-Hordian khans gazed with discontent upon their Southern co-rulers, blaming them for the woes descending upon the Empire. The Hordians and the Ottomans (Atamans) were not very fond of the 'ancient classic' culture, considering their 'ancient classical' brothers to be wrapped in cotton wool, hedonistically wallowing in pleasure. Russia regarded the descendants of Constantine = Dmitry to be the outcasts. Divisions in faith appeared. The relations between the Old Rome = Russia and the New Rome = Czar-Grad tensed. But the main thing was of course metropoly's fear of the epidemics approaching from the South and the West.

In the middle of the XV century the army of Russia-Horde = Israel moved on Constantinople and conquered it in 1453. In the modern textbooks this is the famous military assault of Czar-Grad by the Atamans (Ottomans) lead by Mehmed (or Mahomet) the Conqueror. Having captured the capital, the Ottomanian 'wave' descended upon the Southern and Western provinces of the Empire.

The revolt, which broke out in the Western epicenters of epidemics, was mercilessly crushed. But a dear price had to be paid for it. A great amount of people were exterminated. Including the healthy ones, as in the course of the war the Horde-warriors (Israelites) could hardly succeed in separating the sick from the healthy. The tragic feelings of the people who suffered this disaster, is reflected in the Biblical book Apocalypse, the first version of which was created in 1486, but later was supplemented and reworked up until the XVI century, see below.

The Ottoman Conquest – the 'second wave' carried an entirely different ideology from the 'first wave'. If the 'Mongols'= the magnificent ones of the XIII-XIV cc. created the 'antique classicism', then the 'Mongols'-Ottomans (Atamans) of the second wave of the XV century were destroying it. They considered that it was the liberal behavior of the Europeans of the XIII-XIV cc. which lead to the mass infectious diseases. Including venereal ones, as the bacchanalian festivities emerged and flourished during the 'antique classicism'. The Ataman (Ottoman) spirit of Cossacks once again, for the second time, emerging from Russia-Horde was more ascetic and austere. Eventually the ideology of the modern Islam grew out of it. Extremely severe and chaste.

In the XV-XVI cc. the aniconism ran across the entire Empire. In Russia the aniconism didn't take hold, but in The Ottoman Empire on the contrary it was highly developed up to its modern manifestation. In the Western Europe in many Catholic cathedrals you can see the traces of the aniconism to the present day: there are practically no icons there. Though there are no formal restrictions to depict people or animals in the Catholic Church today.

Bible mentions polygamy several times. Biblical patriarchs had several wives at a time. Old Testament Solomon, for example, is described as having an entire HAREM in. This fact also brings together Biblical customs of Pentateuch with the Muslim ones. The Muslims were allowed polygamy, and wealthy people kept the harems. All the sultans had the harems. The concept of polygamy has probably originated in the epoch of the 'Mongol' conquest. Many men were marching off and the amount of men in the metropoly was decreasing. One of the ways of ensuring reproduction of the population was as follows – to allow a man to have several wives. Thus facilitating the birth of more children.

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