THE EPOCH OF THE XV CENTURY
26. THE KORAN AND THE BIBLE.
Over the course of time Islam underwent great change and only recently assumed its current form.
The Western commentators' of the XIX century's attitude towards the Koran and Muhammad (still not completely overcome to this day) was on the whole very sceptical. Purporting that it is a derivative recent text, largely based on the Old Testament Bible, on the Judaic and Christian works. Originally, they say, recorded either on the bones, papyrus, palm tree leaves, pebbles, or preserved in memory…
Now we understand the reasons for such a negative attitude. The fact is that the chronologists of the XVI-XVIII cc. brutally distorted the past. The Bible and the 'ancient classic' texts, which in reality were created in the XIII-XVII cc., were dated to the deepest antiquity and declared venerated works embedded in the foundation of the entire civilization. The Koran, written approximately in the same epoch, was shifted to a not so remote past and the first year of The Hijra era was professed to be 622. As a result, the Koran, purportedly turned out to be 'much younger' than the Bible and the 'ancient classics'.
Moreover, as a result the Koran and the Bible turned out to be the holy books of different religious movements, seceding from the previously united Christianity of the XIII-XVI cc. This made a strong impression on the representatives of various spiritual schools which emerged in the XVII-XVIII cc. which was reflected in their appraisal of the holy books.
The new chronology fundamentally changes this psychological picture. It becomes clear that the Koran is one of the versions of the holy books which were created in the XIII-XVII cc. that is to say simultaneously to the Bible. This is why many testaments in the Koran are not the 'quotations from the canonised Bible', but often independent and original. Even when they describe the same events as the Bible, the interpretation is different. What the bewildered commentators declare to be 'incorrect citation' of the Bible and the other sources known to us today is just a different perspective on the mediaeval events contemporary to the authors of the Koran.
That is why the Koran is a vitally important and fascinating book, and in regards to us, we read the Koran with an immense interest from the beginning to the end. It turns out that it conveys to us important information lost or cleaned out in the other religious movements.
After the split of the Great Empire the attitude in the Romanovs' Russia towards the Koran and Muhammad became complicated. The emerged religious schism further aggravated tension between the Romanovs and the rulers of Turkey. Nevertheless in the Russian scientific community, unlike in Western Europe, the attitude towards the Koran on the whole remained respectful. It was published and translated in our country as a major work which merited serious study. Even the wars of the pro-Western Romanovs with Turkey didn't influence the respectful attitude towards the Koran in Russia. Despite the attempts of the Romanovs to drive a wedge between the Russians (the Orthodox Christians) and the 'Mongol' Tatars (the Muslims), it didn't succeed.
The Western torrent of 'scientific criticism' at some point descended not just on the Koran, but also on the Book of Mormon [6v]. The accusations against it were in many respects similar to those towards the Koran. Generally the Book of Mormon is often declared to have been 'made up' in the XIX century. The reasons for this 'criticism' are the same. As it turned out the Book of Mormon which surfaced in the XIX century has conveyed to us an old version of history which substantially differs from the Scaligerian one. Subsequently this book was immediately condemned and categorised as 'illegitimate'.
The XVII century author Andrey Lyzlov annotated the Koran and captured a great deal accurately. But as a XVII century Christian, already having been brought up with a sceptical attitude towards Islam, he thought that the Koran (and Islam on the whole) despite, allegedly, being in conflict with the Christians, nevertheless borrowed important ideas from 'earlier' Christianity, Judaism and 'Paganism'. It is not entirely true. All these movements emerged from the whole Royal (and later the Apostolic) Christianity of the XII-XVI cc. That is why they retained so much in common.
At the same time the opinion voiced by Lyzlov has its reasons. As we understand now, the Koran was created in the XV – first half of the XVII cc. as some kind of specific 'ecumenical Book' intended to rectify the rupture, which emerged in the Empire and in the religion. The Islamic leaders sincerely desired to restore the former unity. At least for the significant part of the former Empire (Western Europe was not considered 'their own' any longer). To achieve that they incorporated into the Koran ideas close to the representatives of different religious branches. Their intention was to attract them under their banner. To a great extent it succeeded. Islam has united a great number of people.
The Koran's structure also becomes clear. It is a highly poetic work filled with allegories, and also ideas close to the Christians, the Jews and the 'Pagans'. The poetic language has attracted many. The idea of the restoration of the former unity struck a chord.
We have discovered that the life description of Prophet Muhammad includes some accounts of Andronicus-Christ from the XII century [PRRK]. In particular the following storylines are present: the Annunciation and the Immaculate Conception; caesarean section; the Star of Bethlehem; reference to John the Baptist; the entry of Jesus into Jerusalem; Jesus driving the tradesmen out of the temple; the destruction of the temple and its rebuilding in three days; the judgement of the whore; Descent into Hell; the ascension of Jesus to heaven; Resurrection from the dead and the Last Judgement; the Conversion of Paul the Apostle (Saul).
In the Prophet Muhammad's life story there are also accounts of Moses and Joshua Ben Nun from the XV-XVI cc. For example, a mother gives up her child to be raised by another woman, later the infant is returned to his mother, but she still gives him back. Moses kills the Egyptian, and a pharaoh in revenge wants to kill Moses, but fails. In the life story of Muhammad we are told that he was falsely accused of the murder of a Christian called Sergius, and also about the failed attempt to assassinate the Prophet Muhammad. The Exodus of Moses with the Israelites from Egypt corresponds with Muhammad and his followers' migration (Hijra) from Mecca. Muhammad's great Battle of Badr corresponds with Moses' victory over the pharaoh's army. Muhammad, like Moses, at a single blow cuts though the water, etc. See [PRRK].
However, the facts of the famous Sultan Mehmed II the Conqueror were incorporated into the life story of Prophet Muhammad most of all. The well-known Arab conquest is the Ataman (Ottoman) seizure of the Promised Land in the XV-XVI cc. In particular, the conquest of the cities Taif and Tabuk by the Prophet Muhammad is the reflection of the seizure of Czar-Grad in 1453 by Sultan Mehmed II the Conqueror [PRRK], ch.3. Besides, in the life description of the sultan Mehmed II the Conqueror there are fragments of the 'biographies' of Czar Ivan the 'Terrible' (III = IV) and Khan Ulugh Mehmed.
An interesting theme directly connected with the life description of the Prophet Muhammad was exposed. It turns out that a large iron meteor which fell in Yaroslavl in 1421 was reflected in the Bible, Islam, Christianity, in the 'ancient paganism' of Ancient Rome and Ancient Greece. This fall of the meteor on Novgorod (i.e. Yaroslavl) is described in detail in the Russian chronicles, as well as in the Old Testament. It's reflected in the works of the famous Plutarch as the fall of an 'iron shield' (iron meteor) from the sky in the 'classical' Royal Rome and its usage in forging weapons of steel is described. The Russian Chronicles report the falling of the rocks (or a rock) from the sky, out of a fiery cloud in 1421.
It turns out that the Horde master craftsmen started using the debris of the Yaroslavl meteor (as the additive) to smelt extra strong and resilient steel, as the result of which the famous Damask (Bulat) steel was invented. The Russian (Damask) steel later was reflected as 'ancient' Syrian. Aka – Damask (i.e. Moscovian) (Bulat) steel [PRRK], ch.5.
We have also discovered the mentioning of the meteor of 1421 fallen in Russia in the 'ancient' Greek texts. In particular, it is a legend of an 'ancient' bronze anvil which fell from heaven to earth, to Tartar (Tataria = Tartaria). Another famous 'meteor reflection is the famous smiting god Hephaestus-Svarog, who fell to earth and broke both of his legs.
Another reflection of the Yaroslavl meteor are the Iron Tongs which fell to earth from the sky under the divinity czar Hephaestus-Svarog. Near the place of the fall an ancient settlement Kleshin emerged, not far from Yaroslavl, which later grew into a town of Pereslavl-Zalessky. The legendary 'Blue Stone' in Pereslavl-Zalessky on the shore of Lake Pleshcheyevo is a 'substitute' of the ancient Kleshin Stone, i.e. the meteor.
The rubble of the Yaroslavl meteor (or its 'substitutes' in place of the lost originals) is also most likely safely kept, in the Muslim Kaaba in memory of this event. In the Biblical Arc of the Old Testament there were remnants of the stone 'tablets' of Moses, and in the Muslim Tabernacle in Mecca – fragments of the stone or iron meteor, blackened by the kisses of hundreds of thousands people. Or the debris of lava, the volcanic 'bombs'. It is known that the Kaaba 'Stone, fallen from Heaven' is the greatest relic of the contemporary Mahometans (Islamites) and the Hagarenes of the Middle Ages.
It is possible that there are the pieces of lava, according to the XIX century explorer Crichton. Lava emerges during a volcanic eruption. For example, the eruption of Vesuvius in Italy. Which we already earlier identified with the Biblical mountain Zion-Horeb, where God-Thunderer handed Moses the tablets of stone [1v]. Maybe, they could have been the pieces of lava, on which later the sacred text was inscribed. The fact, that the Black Stone of Kaaba is considered to be 'fallen from heaven' could also be a recollection of debris ejected in the air during the eruption and then fallen to earth. It is clear why the Bible says that the stone tablets broke down. The pieces of the red-hot volcanic rocks falling from the air often break on impact with the ground.
However the most established opinion (and most likely, the correct one) states that the Black Stone of Kaaba is the debris of a meteor.
We also analyse the mass cult of the sacred (rough) stone in the Bible, Islam and Christianity, which originally emerged possibly as a veneration to the iron Yaroslavl meteor. It is also worth paying attention to the mass ancient custom of the rough 'blue stones' in Yaroslavl and its suburbs.
Another 'ancient' story about the Yaroslavl meteor is a famous 'Ancient' Greek myth of Phaethon, the son of Helios, who plunged into the river Eridanos and 'split Tartar apart' (i.e. Tartaria'). It means that Phaethon fell in 1421. The astronomical dating of the horoscope, which we discovered on the old bas-relief the 'fall of the Phaethon' (Phaethon zodiac), fig.59, corresponds well with the fall of the meteor on the 19th May 1421. Thus the date stated in the Russian chronicle is verified astrologically and, therefore, almost certainly with a probability of 0,999 (see the details in [PRRK], ch.5), is correct.
Through the efforts of the 'classic' authors of the XV-XVI cc., Phaethon, aka the Yaroslavl meteor of the 1421, was 'transferred' to the starry sky and depicted on the 'classic' and mediaeval star maps as a renowned stellar constellation of Auriga. The river Volga was presented as the constellation of Eridanos, and Damascus steel which became famous – as the Cygnus constellation. So even from here you can see how many far reaching consequences for the 'classical' world of the XV-XVI cc. were there in the fall of the iron meteor in Timerevo, near Yaroslavl, and subsequently the beginning of the Damask steel production. So, once again, and from a different unexpected side , it is proven that the names of the constellations and their configurations were by no means determined in the 'deepest antiquity', as the historians assure us, but in the epoch of the XIV-XVI cc. [3v].
The reflections of the Yaroslavl meteor of 1421 are also the legends of apostle Peter-Rock with the keys of Heaven, and the god Hephaestus-meteor with the tongs of heaven. Some chroniclers confused Keys and Tongs (in Russian Klyuchi and Kleshi sound similar – Translator's note). The fall of Phaethon was refracted as Apostle Peter's crucifixion 'headfirst' (Peter was crucified upside down).
The Old Testament Prophet Elijah is another partial reflection of Phaethon-Hephaestus-Peter, aka the Yaroslavl meteor of 1421. We refer to the famous Prophet Elijah's ascension to heaven in a chariot of fire. While Elijah of Phoenicia (Hephaestus-Phaethon?) leaves 'his deputy ' – prophet Elisha (possibly, the duplicate of god Haelios, father of Phaethon).
Most likely, the famous Biblical Tabernacle, in which the Arc of the Covenant was situated, is a blacksmiths, where in a special box (like in Kaaba) the Yaroslavl meteor debris were kept.
Finally, we examine the story of Prophet Muhammad's confederate– Ali-Aaron-Ayyub. It turns out that Ali-Ayyub Sultan was a friend and a banner-bearer of Prophet Muhammad and, that after allegedly 800 years of oblivion he once again emerges in the story of Mehemet II The Conqueror. In this respect a possible beginning of the Hijra era is the founding of Kazan by Ulu-Mahmet in 1437-1438. A likely correspondence looks like this: caliph Ali is Ayyub Sultan; caliph Muawiyah is Mehmed the Conqueror; the first Osman Umayyad caliphate is a union of Russia-Horde and Turkey-Atamania of the XV-XVI cc. Besides, the famous legends of Ilya of Murom and Rustam (or Rustem) encompass the recollections of caliph Ali.
So, in the life description of Prophet Muhammad there become apparent some vivid parallels with the life description of Jesus Christ, Biblical Prophet Moses and the famous sultan Mehmed II the Conqueror (1432-1481). The image of Muhammad is complicated and complex and originated in the epoch of the XV-XVI cc. as a result of combining various written sources. While the main core of the 'biography' of prophet Muhammad is a description of sultan Mehmed II the Conqueror.
After the Battle of Badr (also described in the Bible as Moses' victory over the pharaoh's army) the style of the Prophet Muhammad's life story takes a dramatic twist. The following narration up until Muhammad's death consists of a list of the military campaigns, battles, sieges and conquests of the cities. Wars, wars (and more) wars… The matter is clearly about a massive conquest. In fact this is what the Scaligerian history claims to have happened. It is considered that the famous Arab conquest begins from the victory at Badr. Sweeping through many countries. There were especially many conquests under the belt of Omar, Muhammad's successor. It was he who created the Arab Empire. Prophet Muhammad started and developed this, and Omar successfully completed it. A great many pages in the life descriptions of Muhammad and Umar ibn Al-Khattab are devoted to the Muslim military invasion. In the Bible these events are described as the conquest of the Promised Land by Israelite (i.e. Horde-Cossack) armies of Moses and his successor Joshua Ben Nun (The Books of Exodus and Joshua). Moses started the wars successfully and Joshua Ben Nun completed them brilliantly.
In fact it was the Ataman (Ottoman) conquest of the world of the XV-XVI cc. which later on spread onto the American continent. In Eurasia some of these campaigns were carried out by the Atamanian (Ottomanian) Mehmed II the Conqueror [5v] and [6v].
In the Muslim symbolism a prominent part is played by a depiction of a right hand covered with blood. The historians do not know the origins of this symbol or when it was introduced. Some hazy hypotheses have been put forward [PRRK]. The sources inform us as follows:
# This symbol had a ritual, sacred meaning.
# It was perceived as a commemorative sign in honour of some sultan (allegedly Murad). This is the image of the great sultan's hand. Purportedly he left an imprint of his right palm on an important document.
# The imprint of the right hand on the janissary's banners was made in blood. The custom was so widespread that as early as in the time of A.S.Pushkin it was common practice in the Turkish army.
# In the epoch of the XVII-XIX cc. the Atamans (Ottomans), and later the Turks were Muslim.
It occurs that a ceremonial mark of a palmprint on a military banner could have been connected with Prophet Muhammad, the green banner of whom is called the Prophet's Banner.
The palmprint of the sultan's hand covered with blood, as a well-known symbol is also mentioned in the life description of Mehmed II the Conqueror in 1453. The Turkish historian Jalal Assad wrote: 'Sultan enters Hagia Sophia on horseback over the piles of dead bodies… with his HAND COVERED WITH BLOOD he, allegedly, leaned on one of the columns, which is still visible today' , p.56.
Today Mehmed's II 'palmprint' is shown to the tourists in Hagia Sophia (the Church of Holy Wisdom) [PRRK]. Thus, the symbolic depiction of a right hand covered in blood could have appeared as a memory of Mehmed II.
The life description of Prophet Muhammad is multi-layered. The information on sultan Mehmed II, Prophet Moses and the Emperor Andronicus-Christ is intertwined in it. But before his execution Andronicus-Christ's right hand was cut off [TsRS]. It became a Christian symbol and was depicted, in particular, in the 'ancient' Carthaginian temples on the military banners of the 'ancient' Roman legions, [PRRK], ch.4, etc.
It is possible that such a custom appeared in the epoch of the Crusades of the XIII century, when the armies of Russia-Horde and its allies moved onto Czar-Grad to punish the perpetrators of Andronicus-Christ's crucifixion. Christ's severed and bloody right hand was depicted on the military badges as a symbol of vengeance for their executed god. Since then this sign became one of the symbols of the legions of 'Ancient' Rome, i.e. Horde Empire. Most likely, originally there was also a Christian symbol fluttering on the Islamic military banners – the right hand of Christ covered in blood. Under such banners the Christians-Mahometans of that time went into battle. Later the origins of this symbolism were buried, and the chroniclers started to remember either sultan Mehmed II, or sultan Murad, or simply spoke of a ritual meaning of the bloodied hand on the banners of Prophet Muhammad.