THE EPOCH OF THE XV CENTURY
38. APOCALYPSE IS 'THE BOOK OF THE OTTOMAN CONQUEST'.
The famous Biblical book Apocalypse was written in 1486 and devoted to the events anticipated in 1492, i.e. in the year 7000 from Adam, when 'Judgment day' was expected. It was exactly in 1492 in the face of this gloomy anticipation that Christopher Columbus (=biblical Noah) set out to sea. Our astronomical dating of the Apocalypse as the year 1486 (see [1v], ch.3), - i.e. the year 6994 from Adam – ideally corresponds with its content. It turns out that the first version of Apocalypse was created only six years before the anticipated end of the world.
Apocalypse should take the place not as the last book of the Bible, but should be one of the first books of the Old Testament. I.e. Apocalypse is contemporary to the five books of Moses and not the Gospels. It was incorrectly placed in the Bible next to the Gospels, as it was written much later than they were, providing a narrative of the XII century.
Some of the prophecies of the Old Testament (Ezekiel, Zachariah, Daniel, etc.) contain astronomical fragments. Their analysis shows that the prophecies are the works of the late Middle Ages. It corresponds with the results of applying empiric statistical methods to the Bible, shifting the time of the writing of the Bible to the XII-XVII cc. The proximity of the prophecies of the Old Testament to the Apocalypse means, that they all were created in the XV-XVI cc. In the [6v1] Appendix (Annex) 3, indicated are the excerpts of the Book of Daniel describing 'the story of Esther' in XVI century Russia.
The essence of Apocalypse is usually expressed as follows: The second coming of Jesus, He passes judgement of the people in The Last Judgement, separates the righteous people from the sinners, lets the righteous people into paradise, to the New Jerusalem, and casts the sinners down to hell. These motives lay in the foundation of various depictions of the Apocalypse in the churches, church books and on icons.
Jesus lived in the XII century. Approximately 300 years later, in the XV-XVI cc. the Ataman conquest takes place, led by Moses and continued by JOSHUA BEN NUN, i.e. NEW JESUS. It is this epoch which is described in the Apocalypse as the SECOND COMING OF JESUS. Since the Cossacks-Israelites were the crusaders and marched under the banner of Jesus Christ, the chroniclers called their leader the 'New Jesus'.
The Ataman (Ottoman) invasion was a major blow not just for Europe, but also for the rest of the world at that time. The invasion spanned many countries. As it was mentioned before one of the reasons for it was the 'cleansing' of the infected regions, eradication of the illnesses, which had spread across the significant part of Western Europe and Mediterranean.
To remind you, the Western-European Christian Cult, aka the 'ancient' pagan Bacchanalias of the XV-XVI cc. resulted in the spread of infectious diseases. Not just the venereal ones. The Khans of the Empire found themselves confronting a serious state problem. But at that primitive level of the development of medicine the causes of the disease and its proliferation were not clear. The medics could not offer any effective methods of mass treatment. And then the khans of the Empire made the only, as they thought, correct decision – to wipe out the diseased population of the infected regions using military force. To burn down the houses of the sick. The soldiers were given orders not to come into contact with the infected people. To avoid the local food and water. Swords and all weapons in general had to be disinfected, cleansed with fire and boiled in water. Clothes to be periodically incinerated… All of this is unequivocally described in detail in the Books of Exodus and Joshua [6v1], ch.4-5.
After some qualms, the unpopular decision was made in the end and implemented with an iron fist. Naturally, the population of Western Europe (i.e. mainly the descendants of the Hordians-'Mongols', who arrived to the sparsely inhabited lands a century to a century and a half earlier, during the conquest of the XIV century) , opposed such dictates of their Khan-Emperor. Those who were able that is. No one wanted to die. Even the infirm rose up in arms to rebut the Atamans (Ottomans). Both sides knew how to fight. The war broke out. However the rebellion was crushed with a heavy hand. These were the events, which seismically shook Europe and are reflected in the Apocalypse as 'The Last Judgement'.
The Apocalypse is permeated with grim pictures of the Last Judgement. The Judgment is inevitable for everyone. The military aspect of the events taking place is emphasized relentlessly. Jesus is continually depicted with a BATTLE SWORD.' A message to thee from Him whose sword is sharpened at both its edges' (The Apocalypse 2:12). His eyes were like BLAZING FIRE … Coming out of His mouth was a SHARP, DOUBLE-EDGED SWORD (The Apocalypse 1:14, 1:16). And so on: (The Apocalypse 2:16), (The Apocalypse 19:15)...
Here was a vividly defined picture of the unstoppable military invasion, death, fires and stampedes. The surviving tradition of the illustrations demonstrates that they were referring to the real war. The mediaeval authors equated the Biblical Gog and Magog with the Tatars-Mongols [5v1], ch.8:4. The old illustrations to the Apocalypse are filled with warriors depicted in a way usually associated with the manner in which the soldiers of the Horde were presented [2v1], ch.2.
As we have said already, the Atamans (Ottomans) (Israelites) were ordered to annihilate the sick population of the infected regions. The segregation of the sick from the healthy reflected in the Apocalypse as the division of the populace into the pure and impure, the righteous and sinners. The righteous were assured a good life in Paradise, and the sinners were cast down into Hell.
A torrent of damnation was brought down by the Apocalypse upon the 'Babylonian lechery'. It was cursed at length and with intensity as ABOMINATIONS AND EVIL SPIRITS (The Apocalypse 18:2). Here is described, quite explicitly, the cause and aim of the Ataman's (Ottoman's) quarantine policy – the eradication of the negative consequences of the sexual immorality which had spread in the Western 'ancient' church of the XV-XVI cc. The infamous inquisition was created for the purpose of 'cleansing' [5v1], ch.12:9-10.
The fall of Babylon described in the Apocalypse was possibly equated with the conquest of Czar-Grad by the Atamans in 1453. It took place 33 years prior to the year 1486 recorded in the astronomical horoscope of the Apocalypse. But it is quite possible that by Babylon was meant not only Czar-Grad, but collectively many Western countries immersed in vice and sin, according to the author of the Bible.
The fact, that the biblical story of the patriarch Noah is also another reflection of the events of the year 1492, corresponds with the direct connection between Noah's voyage and the DOOM OF THE MANKIND, the catastrophe in which allegedly almost all the people perish. 'Judgement Day in 1492 is presented here as 'the Flood', where the Book of Genesis describes the Flood as the Last Judgement, the God-sent punishment for the 'corruption of the people'. In essence it says the same as the Apocalypse.
The Old Testament story about the patriarch Noah, the Flood and the Babylonian pandemonium, is most likely another version of one of the central storylines of the Apocalypse. But outlined more succinctly.
To conclude, there appears to be a remarkably close proximity in time between the three major events: 1) the beginning of Columbus' = Noah's of the Old Testament's journey in 1492, 2) the anticipation of the 'end of the world' in 1492, 3) the epoch of the biblical Apocalypse, not earlier than 1486.
Later on, when creating or specifying the theory of the chronology of different eras, the chronologists of the XVII-XVIII cc. combined the end of the already elapsed XV century with the BACKWARDS CALCULATED rounded calendar date of seven thousand years. And then they built a theoretical justification, purporting that the 'roundness of this date itself' was catastrophically dangerous and that is why in 1492 everyone was allegedly expecting the end of the world. But all of this was written later, when it had already been forgotten, that at the end of the XV century 'the end of the world' was not expected as a FORESEEN EVENT, BUT ACTUALLY DID TAKE PLACE in the form of the Ottoman Conquest and the merciless 'surgical treatment' of various European countries. This is the exact reason why the images of the Last Judgment (Joshua Ben Nun = The New) embedded in the Apocalypse shocked people to the very core. This was not a 'prediction', but an account of recent events.
Thus circa 1492 'the end of the world' took its actual place in Western Europe and was impressively described in the Apocalypse. But later these events were withdrawn from the history of the XV-XVI cc. and transplanted into the future. The Apocalypse was freshly re-written (having destroyed the original text) and declared as a PROPHECY, which purportedly predicts the end of the world in a certain future. Why was this done?
The Apocalypse, as we have it today, was designed as an important ideological and educational Book in order to remind the people and their descendants of the Ottoman conquest, which was described as the "Last Judgement".
is also reflected in history as the conquest of St. James [6v1], ch.5:4. The famous map of St. James' 'religious conquests', i.e. most likely the map of the military routes of the Atamans (Ottomans) of the XV-XVI cc., was canonised and declared by the church as the sacred scheme of routes down which the future generations should go on pilgrimage every year in order to reach the Spanish cathedral Santiago de Compostela and bow down to the holy relics of St. James. The Church tried its best to reinforce the memory of events of the Ataman invasion in people's minds.
A similar thing was done with the Apocalypse, i.e. 'The Book of the Ottoman conquest'. It was declared holy and, having included it into the biblical canon, turned it into an object of devotion for the ensuing generations. When the book was declared a prophecy of the Last Judgement, the people believed it, as something like this had recently been experienced. When the Khans-Czars of the Great Empire educated the population of the colonized territories, demanding them to abide by the law and threatening the disobedient with the Judgement of Jesus, they were believed unreservedly. As they remembered that 'one such Judgement of Jesus' did already take place. And therefore if necessary it can be repeated once more.
Everywhere in the churches and temples of the Empire they began to paint frescos – the impressive images of the Judgement of Jesus. Stating at the same time that all of this will only take place in the future. The rulers of the Empire wisely employed this method of mass education in the spirit of obeisance to the Imperial dictates.
In the West and in Russia the Judgement of Jesus was represented in fundamentally different ways. In Russia the Final Judgement was pictured in soft tones, without the elements of intimidation. The stress was upon the depiction of the righteous, giving praise to the Lord's Throne. Hell was presented in a tawdry, not very frightening way.
But in Western Europe the Last Judgement was portrayed using darker methods, inducing a more penetrating effect on the psyche, depicting terrifying executions, the tortures of the damned, hellfire, torture instruments and gruesome physiological details. Recall the paintings of Hieronymus Bosch, Pieter Brueghel and many others.
It is all clear. In Russia-Horde, in the metropoly of the Empire, as in Atamania (Ottoman Empire), there were no quarantine actions on the liquidation of the XV-XVI cc. epidemics. That is why the attitude towards the Final Judgement here was more impassive. The population of the metropoly didn't experience the cataclysms connected with the 'mandatory treatment of Europe'. There were of course plenty of other rueful feelings here, as everywhere, but the 'surgical operations' passed Russia and The Ottoman Empire by.
But Western Europe found itself in the epicentre of the atamans' invasion. Here the quarantine operations were carried out on a full scale. It is sufficient to read over the Books of the Old Testament – Exodus and Joshua, to imagine the red-hot situation in Europe of the XV-XVI cc. That is why the Western Europeans, saved from the epidemics (by severe means, but saved nevertheless) perceived the Final Judgement as directly experienced reality, hence the harrowing nature of the paintings and frescos of the Western artists.
In the West the reading of the Apocalypse to the congregation was imposed as a duty on the priesthood, so that the Europeans didn't forget Jesus' Judgement which took place in the XV-XVI cc. It was here where the Great Empire had to forcibly conduct the quarantine operations. That is why in Europe it was necessary to keep alive the memories of the Last Judgement, so that the seductive orgies, which gave rise to past epidemics, didn't flourish again. In other words the authorities sternly warned the people against the 'drugs'. But in the East, in the metropoly of the Empire, the situation was different. Here Christianity, starting with the XII century, constantly remained in a rather ascetic framework. There were never any orgies there, at least not on the mass scale. Likewise in Islam. That is why in the Eastern churches it was not necessary to read the Apocalypse as an admonition to the Congregation. So it was not read.
The shock experienced by Western Europe in the XV-XVI cc. bred within some social groups a deeply entrenched enmity towards the 'surgeons', i.e. towards the Atamania (Ottoman Empire) and Russia-Horde, a hatred which had not been felt before. That the 'surgeon' had cured the 'bacchanalian drug addiction' was a fact condemned to oblivion. It was the grievance for the sufferings inflicted during the compulsory treatment that took precedence. The memory of the 'pain' experienced before was used by the Western reformists determined to exert their control. It acted like an enzyme which fermented and created the conditions to justify their ambitions and aspirations to split the Empire. It was the cunningly promoted 'Hatred of the doctor' which slyly facilitated the organization of the conspiracy in the metropoly of Russia-Horde and allowed the break-up of the Empire.
In the XVII century the Reformative Western Europe at last gained independence [6v2]. The break of the 'Mongolian' Empire enabled the Western Europeans to invade Russia and physically destroy the Hordian dynasty, placing the pro-Western Romanovs into power. The bloody pogrom ran through Russia. The metropoly was occupied by the foreigners over a long period of time. SERFDOM, i.e. SLAVERY for the majority of the population of the country is introduced. The Romanovs' occupying regime held out for a long time. The Hordian-'Mongolian' traditions are destroyed on the invaded territories, the whole way of life changes radically, including the church practices. It is not surprising that in the epoch of the Great Revolt in Russia the people could have seen in the Apocalypse some indication of the beginning of the last Judgement. But this time – in Russia, in the East. So what do we see in the XVII century?
We quote: 'A resurgence of interest in the Apocalypse in Russian society occurs in the middle of the 'rebellious' XVII century… The supporters of the old orders saw in the drastic reformer (Nikon – Author) if not the Antichrist himself, then at least his precursor… The end of the world was anticipated in 1658… then in 1666, and finally, similar to the situation in 1492, taking into account the earthly life of Christ, - in 1699. At the end of the expected date, as if in support of the premonitions, Peter the Great's state reforms began… Since the middle of the XVII century and in the duration of one a half centuries the APOCALYPSE BECOMES ALMOST THE MAIN BOOK OF THE OLD RUSSIAN FAITH… in particular the apocalyptic quality of the outlook was characteristic to the extreme Old Believers – Bezpopovtsy (Sects of Russian religious dissenters that renounced priests and all sacraments, except Baptism – Translator's note), such as 'stranniks'(religious pilgrims – Translator's note) (runners), who denied the possibility of salvation in secular life, from which one should run away, as the kingdom of Antichrist was perceived by them NOT AS FORTHCOMING, BUT AS ALREADY ARRIVED' , p.29-30.
Many geographical names in course of time fundamentally changed their meaning. That is why we should not refer to, for example, just the 'city of Rome'. You should say 'the city of Rome in such and such century'. In which case the geographical location of Rome will fundamentally shift.
The names of the countries, cities, etc. 'lived in time' and moved around the map. At first they were not securely fixed due to the lack of reliable links between the nations. The languages and the writing systems were only just starting to take shape. Only at a considerably later stage with the circulation of books and single uniform printed geographical maps, the geographical names, finally, became permanent on the map.
Indeed, how could information about the geography of the world be fixed and distributed? To do so it is necessary to own some kind of multiplying equipment, allowing reproduction of at least several dozens of copies of a map or a manuscript in order to make it a universal asset. Without it the information becomes mercurial and fast-changing. The old localizations fade from memory, new ones are introduced, and the process becomes difficult to control. The relocation of the names and the frequent change of their meaning stopped only with the appearance of the printed book. In the pre -press epoch the relocation of the cities' names, the names of the nations, the change in the meaning of these names, was a frequent occurrence. See the previous chapter.
Moving along the fundamental 'History' of Herodotus, we have discovered the significant identifications, shown in fig.61, fig.62, fig.63. Incidentally, the name 'The Histories of Herodotus' probably meant 'The History of Horde (Horda)' [ZA], ch.1.
# The very first book of the 'History' is Clio. It turned out that in it, primarily, is told the story of Andronicus-Christ from the XII century and the Crusades of the XIII century, i.e. the Trojan war.
# The second book Euterpe tells us, as it turns out, about Russia-Horde of the XIV-XVI cc., i.e. about the biblical Egypt. In particular, under the name of 'construction of the Egyptian Labyrinth' it speaks of the building of the overground and underground Moscow of the XVI century during the time of Ivan IV the Terrible, who turned Moscow into the capital of the 'Mongolian' Empire [6v].
# In the third book Thalia we discovered another narrative of Andronicus-Christ, named here as king Polycrates [GR]. However this subject occupies only a small part in the book. Its main content is the story of Cambyses, king of Persia and Egypt, i.e. of khan Ivan IV the Terrible.
# The book of Melpomene mainly speaks of the Novgorodian Serf War and once again of Andronicus-Christ [TsRIM] and [GR].
# The book of Terpsichore begins a narration about the Epoch of the Reformation of the XVI-XVII cc.
# The book Erato continues this narration, but here is inserted the description of the 'ancient' Battle of Marathon, i.e. the Battle of Kulikovo of 1380 [ZA], ch.1.
# The last books of the 'History' of Herodotus, namely Polymnia, Urania and Calliope, tell us, as it turns out, about Ivan IV the Terrible and the rebellion of the Reformation in the late XVI- early XVII cc.
We found out that despite some confusion, Herodotus on the whole moves in the right direction from the XII to XVII cc. His last books Thalia, Terpsichore, Erato, Polymnia, Urania and Calliope comprise the greater part of the 'History'. Therefore the epoch of the Reformation is given the most attention. And it is understandable why. As we said earlier, it felt acceptable to the Western Europeans, who got free from the direct vassalage to Russia-Horde = Israel and paying taxes to the metropoly. From the early XVII century there was much more money left in West than before. It was used more liberally and in some places they began to create their own statehood and an army.
It is perceived that the first mention of the mechanical clock is dated to the late VI century . Then it allegedly disappears and reappears only in the epoch of Renaissance. The science historians inform us: 'In the XIII century… the Italian master craftsmen constructed the first mechanical clock , p.3. According to the new chronology, the clock (water-clock and their ilk), appeared not earlier than the XI century, and the mechanical clock was invented not earlier than the XIII century [3v1].
Only 'since the XV century a clock appeared, where the part of a string with a balance weight was fulfilled by a spring. The clock instantly weighed far less. In the early XVI century they learned how to make a portable spring clock which weighed just 3 or 4 kilograms' , p.39.
More or less precise cataloguing of the stars longitudinally should have naturally begun following the invention of the clock with a MINUTE HAND. Why is a minute hand necessary? The fact is that during the diurnal rotation the celestial dome with the stars travels one degree in 4 minutes. Thus in one hourly minute a star travels 15 arc minutes. The ancient celestial catalogues contain the stars positions within the accuracy of several arc minutes. In order to achieve accuracy of the catalogue within 15 arc minutes, it is necessary to know how to record the interval of time lag of one hourly minute. To get the precision of the catalogue within 10 minutes – as in Almagest, for example, - the observer should confidently measure the time interval of 40 seconds on the clock.
But even an hour hand without a minute hand was introduced in the water-clock only in the XIII century or possibly later , v.4, p.267. Only in the XIV century the tower clock, also only with an hour hand, appeared in various European cities – in Milan since 1306, in Padua since 1344. And only in the XV century there appeared a clock with a spring and weight. At first such a clock was used for the purposes of the astronomical observations by Walter, and later by Tykho Brahe and others , v.4, p.267-268.
In the middle of XVI century the second Minute hand was added to the Hour hand, and two hundred years later – the third Second Hand [954, p.39]. The emergence of the Minute hand usually dates to circa 1550 [3v1].
That is why all more or less reliable astronomical observations, including the cataloguing of the stars, could have begun not earlier than the XI-XIII cc. This corresponds with our dating of Ptolemy's star catalogue Almagest as not earlier than the XI century. At that the epoch of the finalizing of Almagest as the astronomical encyclopaedia, was the XVI century. And not at all the II century, as perceived by the Scaligerian history [3v1].
1. (Year 1404) SMALL ESNA ZODIAC EM (ZODIAC EM FROM THE SMALL TEMPLE OF ESNA). Depicted on the stone slab relief on the ceiling of the temple, bas-relief. 'Ancient' Egypt, Esna, allegedly 'antiquity'. In fact: 6-8 May 1404 [NKhE].
2. (Year 1405) the 'RADIAL' ZODIAC RP2 IN THE CHAMBER OF COURT IN PADUA. Murals of the upper hall. Italy, Padua, allegedly 1315-1317. Astronomical dating: 14-16 October 1405. In fact this zodiac was created in the XVIII century. See [GRK], ch.4.
3. (Year 1421) PHAETHON ZODIAC FN on the stone bas-relief in the Villa Borghese. Italy, allegedly 'antiquity'. In fact: one of the versions – 19 May 1421 – precisely matches the date indicated in the Russian chronicles [PRRK], Ch.5.
4. (Year 1486) ZODIAC OF THE APOCALYPSE , contained in the famous biblical Book of the Revelation of St. John allegedly written in the Ist century. In fact: 1 October 1486 [1v].
5. (Year 1495) ZODIAC BL ON THE BAYEUX TAPESTRY. Positioned (among various other depictions) on the embroidered linen cloth approximately 70 metres long and approximately 50 centimetres wide. Europe, England, allegedly the XI century. In fact 16 March 1495 [KR], ch.1. Therefore the famous tapestry was made no earlier than in the XV century. Besides it was not the conquest of England depicted on it, but the Trojan War and Christ's deposition. As far as we know, before us nobody tried to astronomically date the Bayeux Tapestry, let alone speak of a zodiac with a horoscope present on it. There is nothing surprising in this. Usually the historians prefer 'not to notice' any zodiacs on the ancient artefacts. Or, when it is completely obvious, they begin to pontificate about their allegedly purely religious meaning. They, most likely, do their best to escape the need to astronomically date such images and, mainly, to lead the readers away from such a 'dangerous' thought.