A.T.Fomenko , G.V.Nosovskiy
HOW IT WAS IN REALITY

Chapter 6.

21. ANCIENT HISTORY IS BEING RE-WRITTEN.

In the memory of the Western Europeans of the XVI-XVII cc., who were the descendants of the Hordians of the first wave of the XIV century, the era of the 'ancient' Russia-Horde of the XIV-XV cc. turned into a nostalgic beautiful memory. In the XVI-XVIII cc. the Europeans started to talk about this Hordian epoch as the 'beautiful ancient Rome' dealt deathly blows by the 'evil nations'. Having distorted the history, they started to keep quiet about the fact that the Ottomans' invasion was aimed at stopping the epidemics in Europe. The military aspect of the invasion was given precedence. The blame for the 'barbaric destruction of ancient Rome (i.e. the Western provinces of Russia-Horde of the XIV-XV cc.) was attributed to the 'aggressors' – Russia and Atamania (Ottoman Empire). Hence the tension between West and East, which later triggered the wars between Russia, Turkey and Western Europe.

It is understandable why the Europeans, beginning with the XVII-XVIII cc., paid such deference to the 'iron ancient Rome'. They started talking about it with a heady idealism, as if of a beautiful legend, worthy of emulation. In the XIX-XX cc. the 'ancient' Roman ruins were restored all over Europe. And where there was nothing left, they simply built them anew, unashamedly declaring them to be the remains of the military Roman camps, aqueducts, theatres and arches. They wanted so badly to have their own 'sightseeing attractions'. Without compunction they erected 'half ruined ancient columns' of modern reinforced concrete. They made cracks and holes 'from the savage cannon balls' in the freshly built 'ancient' walls. They broke the bricks off in a beautiful way. For example, in the XVIII-XIX cc. an 'ancient' modern replica was erected – the Coliseum in Italian Rome, in imitation of the genuinely old Coliseum of the XIV-XV cc, in Czar-Grad [VAT]. The modern replicas were muddied and cured with smoke to give them an 'ancient' patina. Numerous 'designers' worked hard. Here and there, nearby, there were authentically old pieces, fragments from the XIV-XVII cc. BC which were scattered picturesquely, on each of them – an obligatory plaque: II century BC, VIII century BC, XXVI century BC and so on. Tourists arrived in their droves, and with them money. Piles of it.

A French artist Hubert Robert, 1733-1808, in 1784 was appointed in charge of the Louvre museum and the curator of its art gallery. He created a series of large great canvases celebrating the ruins of 'ancient Rome'. He painted gigantic half-ruined Roman temples, lit by the rays of the setting sun. Moonlit remnants of the grandiose statues. The colonnades overgrown with trees… But there were never any ancient constructions of such a size in Western Europe. Hubert Robert aimed to arouse the emotions with such exaggerations. He expressed the spirit of his age. The talented artist placed tiny figures of people in front of the background of crumbled silent 'classical' temples, who in admiration were gazing at the traces of Europe's great past.

Thus the history of the Horde Empire was divaricated (on paper). One 'half' of it was turned into an idealised glamorised myth to be worshiped and adored. The other part – in fact the same one! – was declared to be the Empire of every evil. So:

1) 'ANCIENT' ROME is mainly the reflection of the Great Empire of the XIV-XVI cc. The Russian emperors are the Russian-Horde czars-khans.

2) ISRAEL was in that epoch the name for (including the Bible) Russia-Horde with its capital in Vladimir, Yaroslavl = Veliky Novgorod, and later in Moscow. They also emphasized fighting in the name of God, the militarized nature of the metropoly: the 'Mongol' troops of Russia-Horde always inspired fear.

3) JUDAEA in that epoch was the name for the Ottoman Empire=Atamania with its capital in Czar-Grad (and the Yoros fortress) = Biblical Jerusalem =ancient Troy. Concurrently the God praising nature of that part of the Empire was emphasized. Everything is clear: it was Czar-Grad where Jesus Christ lived and was crucified. Later in this city, which became holy for the Christians, they began to Praise God (Judaeans = those who praise God).

In the Bible under the word ROSH or ROS (RASH or RAS) is meant RUSSIA (Ezekiel 38:2-3, 38:18 and further; Genesis 46:21). By the way, in the Western reading the word in English, for example is spelled Russia and until now is read Russia, i.e. the same Rosh. In the Ostrog Bible is said perfectly clear: PRINCE ROSSKA!

Under the Biblical names GOG and MAGOG (and also MGOG, GUG, MGUG) (for example, Apocalypse 20:7) are hidden the very same Russians and Tatars, who had created 'Mongolia' = Magog, i.e. the Great Empire. The Mediaeval tradition claims that the Apocalyptic people Gog and Magog are Goths and Mongols. Some English chronicles actually identified Gog and Magog, speaking of one people Goemagog. In fact they identified Goths with the Tatars and Mongols.

In the Bible under the words MESHEKH (or MESECH) (MShKh or MSKh) are meant MOSOCH – the legendary persona after whose name, as asserted by many Mediaeval authors, MOSCOW was called.

The Biblical TUBAL (FUVAL) (TBL or TVL) – is TOBOL river in Western Siberia, on the East side of the Urals. It is the very same BALTICS. The fact is that letter Fita (?, ?)= Theta (Θ, θ) was pronounced as T (Th) and as F. Besides the sound V could shift to B and vice versa because of the double interpretation of the Greek letter Vita = Beta (Β, β Β?τα).

The famous 'ancient' Assyria, described among other places in the Bible - i.e. Syria or Ashur – is identified with Russia-Horde. The Biblical names: ASSYRIA or ASSUR and also ASUR or SYRIA and also ASHUR are simply the backward reading of the three old names of our country: ROSSIA – i.e. ASSYRIA or ASSUR; then there is RUS' – i.e. ASUR or SYRIA and, finally, RUSSIA – i.e. ASHUR. The British, FOR EXAMPLE, use the word RUSSIA (for ROSSIA) until now.

The Biblical Babylon is the White Horde of the Volga Horde. And after the Ottoman conquest the Biblical Babylon is most likely Czar-Grad on the Bosphorus. The Biblical Nineveh the Great City – is Novgorod Veliky on Volga river. The Biblical Assyrian Damascus is Russian Moscow [6v1], ch.5.

'ANCIENT' GREECE is just the name of Greece of the epoch of the XII-XVI cc. For the identification of these 'ancient' and mediaeval events see [2v2].

'Such an integral part of the mediaeval historiography as anachronism' becomes clear. 'THE PAST IS DEPICTED USING THE SAME CATEGORIES AS THE MODERN TIMES… THE BIBLICAL AND CLASSICAL CHARACTERS APPEAR IN MEDIAEVAL COSTUMES… the presence of the kings and patriarchs of the Old Testament alongside the classical thinkers and characters from the Gospels on the portals of the temples best of all explains the anachronistic attitude towards history' [217], p.117-118.

The historians reliant on the erroneous chronology, think that the Middle Ages 'confused on massive scale ' the epochs and notions that the mediaeval authors, and only 'due to their ignorance' identified the 'ancient' biblical epoch with the epoch of the Middle Ages. This is not true. The writers and the artists, on the whole, faithfully reflected the reality.

The 'classical' authors who for example described the 'classical Greece' – Herodotus, Thucydides, Xenophon et al - lived in the XIV-XVII cc. They were not the falsifiers, but the chroniclers who reflected the original mediaeval events. They were writing at the same time as the other chroniclers known to us as the mediaeval ones. The difference between the 'classical' writers and the 'mediaeval' ones is that their works were dated incorrectly and were shifted back into the past. Besides, the Scaligerian editors have 'raked over' them. They got rid of all the obvious traces of the Middle Ages. A lot of things were distorted, but some things (even a lot of things) survive. This falsification took place in the XVI-XVIII cc.

22. THE BIBLE.

The Bible describes the events of the XII-XVII cc. and is completed at the end of the XVII century. The New Testament narrates the second half of the XII century, and the Old Testament – about the XII-XVII cc. The books of the New Testament give the account of the life and deeds of the emperor Andronicus-Christ (Andrey Bogolyubsky), Mary Theotokos (Mother of God), Christ's apostles who lived in the second half of the XII - beginning of the XIII cc. The Old Testament also relates to these characters, but also tells us about the Ottoman conquest of the XV-XVII cc, about the Moscow Kingdom – the metropoly of the XV-XVII cc. Empire, about the Ottoman Empire (Atamania) and finally about the Time of Troubles in the early XVII century.

The legendary Old Testament mount Sinai (Zion), aka Horeb – is the Vesuvius volcano in Italy. The biblical cities Sodom and Gomorrah destroyed by God ('24 Then the Lord rained on Sodom and on Gomorrah brimstone and fire from the Lord out of the heavens… 28 …the smoke of the country went up like the smoke of a furnace' (Genesis 19:24, 19:28) are the famous cities of Stabia and Herculaneum, buried by the eruption of the Vesuvius in the XVI – early XVII cc. The part of the Apocalypse of the Old Testament about the destruction of Jerusalem gives an account of the ruin of the city of Pompey during the eruption of Vesuvius in 1631 (and far from the II century as we have been assured). The ruins of 'ancient' Pompey excavated from the ground show us the way people of the XVI-XVII cc. lived. The 'classical' artists of Pompey were the contemporaries of the epoch of Rafael and Julio-Romano. It is not surprising that they had a common style [1v], ch.1.

The well-known God's Revelation together with the commandment tablets that the biblical Moses received also on Vesuvius in the XV century. '…there was thunder and lightning, with a thick cloud over the mountain (Sinai), and a very loud trumpet blast… Mount Sinai was covered with smoke, because the Lord descended on it in fire. The smoke billowed up from it like smoke from a furnace, and the whole mountain trembled violently. As the sound of the trumpet grew louder and louder, Moses spoke and the voice of God answered him' (Exodus 19:9, 19:11, 19:13, 19:16, 19:18-19). Besides this, the legend absorbed not only the story of Moses' commandment tablets, but also the story of Yaroslav meteorite falling near the Volga river in 1421 [1v], ch.1, [PRRK].

Biblical Phoenicia – Venice, the mighty Republic of Venice. According to the Bible the 'ancient' Phoenicia was a powerful maritime state reigning over the entire Mediterranean and establishing its colonies in Sicily, Spain and Africa. The 'ancient' Phoenicians traded heavily with the far away countries (Ezekiel, ch.27).

Various events from the Old Testament, for example, the journey of the Israelites lead by Moses and the conquest of the Promised Land by Joshua ben Nun, didn't take place in the modern Palestine, but in Europe, in particular in Italy, as well as in America.

According to the Scandinavian chroniclers [5v2], ch.9, the biblical PARADISE is situated in the East [523], p.32. The Volga River was called in the 'ancient' sources as RA. According to the common view in the Middle Ages, from the Paradise in the East the four great rivers were flowing out. See for example the map of Hans Ru"st, allegedly of the XV century [1v], ch.5:9.

So, the geographers of the Middle Ages used the name PARADISE to name some geographic region. Which one? It is not so simple to understand it from the old reference maps. But there is in fact a place from which the four major European rivers flow out. It is the Central Russian Upland. Here, not far from each other, are situated the sources of rivers Volga, Don, Dnieper and Western Dvina. The largest of them is Volga. That could be the reason why it was called RA. As according to many PARADISE used to be situated there. So appealingly described in the Bible. These lands were actually very convenient for living. Here, the metropoly of the Great Empire many were striving for.

23. THE STOPPED SUN.

Both in the Bible and in the history of Charles the Great there plays out a familiar theme of the stopped sun. An idea to place the centre of the world in the sun, in other words to bring to THE SUN TO A STOP appeared in the XVI-XVII cc. when the Books of the Bible were being written and edited [6]. The famous words in the Book of Joshua ben Nun about the SUN that STOOD IN THE SKY 10:12-14, in a poetic way reflect that deep impression made on people when the heliocentric model was first revealed. Quite unexpectedly it turned out that IT IS POSSIBLE TO STOP THE SUN. Contrary to all evidence! As the sun is continuously moving across the skies and 'never stops'.

The editor of the bible of the XVII century attributed to bringing the sun to a standstill to Joshua Ben Nun [6v1], ch.5. I.e. to the conqueror of the epoch of the Ottoman conquest of the 'Promised Land'. But it was in the XVI century when there originated the idea of the heliocentric model finally and conclusively formulated by Tycho Brahe (Hipparchus) and Nicolaus Copernicus [3v1].

Thus, the discovery by Brahe and Copernicus revolutionized people's minds. The scientists 'made the Sun stand still', i.e. placed it in the centre of the universe and made all the planets, including the Earth, revolve round it. Prior to that Ptolemy's system was predominate, where the stars revolve round the Earth [3v1], ch.11:7.6.

In the 'most ancient' Bible the Sun was brought to a standstill allegedly during a battle, which was Joshua Ben Nun's revenge for a prior defeat.

In the well-known Mediaeval epic poem 'The Song of Roland' the Sun was brought to standstill during the battle which was Charles the Great's (the Great King) revenge for the defeat of his rear guard.

Pic.65 shows an unusual symbol which can be seen in 'The Triumphal Arch of Maximilian I' by Durer [PE]. The oblique Andreevsky cross surrounded by the four symbols of the stopped sun. The sun while moving across the skies stumbles against the czar's crown and comes to a standstill. We see that the discovery of the heliocentric model was depicted on the coat of arms of the Horde Empire. On 'The Triumphal Arc' there is also the image of the stopped sun, boxed in between the two czar's royal crowns. Such images are also present in both 'The Triumphal Procession', pic.66, and in a A.Durer's gravure 'Large Triumphal Carriage' [PE].

24. WHEN THE SYMBOLS OF THE CONSTELLATION OF STARS AND THEIR NAMES WERE INVENTED.

We are being told that the constellations of the stars depicted on the Mediaeval and modern star maps were invented in the deepest antiquity. There were some changes occurring over the course of time, but as we are told, on the whole, the starry sky was divided into the constellations a long time ago. They claim, for example, that the star signs appeared 'possibly as early as 2500 years ago'. See the details in [3v2].

The figures of the constellations of Serpent-bearer, Gemini and Orion, for example, appeared allegedly long before AC. And naturally long before Christianity. So allegedly there are no Christian symbols there, let alone the symbols connected to the events in the Middle Ages. And thus there is allegedly no connection with the Biblical events.

However, it is not true. A fresh approach to the ancient celestial maps uncovers some incredible connections, for example, with the biblical history. The sky atlas turns from something 'very ancient' and half-forgotten into a selection of bright illustrations on the history of the XI-XVII cc. It is, in short, an 'illustrated textbook'. The pictures-hieroglyphs, i.e. the celestial figures, reflected major events of that epoch [3v2], ch.9. Later all of this was forgotten.

The most ancient fragment of the celestial map is the Zodiac. The figures of the zodiacal constellations acquired their final form not earlier than the XII century. The first half of the Zodiac represents the biblical events of the XII century. The second half – the story of Georgi Pobedonosets (George the Conqueror) = the Russian-Horde czar-khan Georgi Danilovich = Genghis Khan. I.e. the events of the XIV-XV cc., the creation of the Great Empire and the seizure of Czar-Grad in 1453.

The celestial maps of the Northern and Southern skies were finally created in the XV-XVI cc. There are, in particular, depicted on them the events of the late XV century: the voyage of Columbus = Biblical Noah = 'ancient' Jason crossing the Atlantic Ocean; the discovery of America = 'India'. The striking images of the Biblical Apocalypses written in 1486 also reflected in the map of the Southern sky [1v], ch.3 and [3v2], ch.9.

25. WHEN AND HOW THE ARABIC NUMERALS WERE INVENTED.

V.V.Bobynin, the mathematics historian wrote: 'THE HISTORY OF OUR NUMERALS PRESENTS NO MORE THAN A SET OF ASSUMPTIONS, INTERMITTENT WITH THE ARBITRARY ASSUMPTIONS, which, as a result of preceding application of the indoctrination method, occasionally comes across as SOMETHING SEEMINGLY PROVEN'. Cited by [989], p.53. Having explained various theories of the origin of the Arabic numerals, the authors of the Encyclopaedia [989] conclude: 'Thus WE STILL DO NOT HAVE A HISTORICALLY VALID THEORY WHICH COULD ADEAQUATELY EXPLAIN THE ORIGIN OF OUR NUMERALS' [989], p.52.

However the matter is much simpler. As we show in [4v2], ch.1, all the 'Arabic numerals' originated from the preceding Slavonic and Greek demi-radix numeration system. Where it was exactly the SLAVIC VERSION OF LETTERS-SYMBOLS used. The Russian XVI century ornate cursive writing was its source. All of this took place in the XVI century in the epoch of the invention of the positioning system.

It doesn't follow from the fact discovered by us, that the 'Indo-Arabic' numerals were invented exactly in Russia, in the metropoly of the Empire. It could have been done in one of the Imperial provinces. For instance in Egypt or in Europe in the late XVI – early XVII cc. Then the Great Empire was still one and its lands fulfilled different functions. It was convenient and sensible. In some regions the Horde czars-khans developed shipbuilding, in the other – science and medicine, and in the third – the fine arts… All the achievements belonged to the 'Mongol' Empire, 'went in to the pot'. The Imperial court and the Great czar-khan, the Emperor himself were considered to be the owners of all of the achievements. Only after the breakup of the Empire in the XVII century there occurred the phenomenon unknown before. There appeared and magnificently flourished sharp provincial competitiveness – whose science or whose medicine was better. Such a question has simply never arisen before. But at that point some were proud of their ships, purporting that they were the best, while the others were responding by having the best cannons. Having forgotten that not so long ago both the ships and the cannons (and everything else) were collective, Imperial and were produced in this or that place in accordance with the economic plan put together in the administrative office of the Great Emperor.

Therefore, we will repeat, the 'Indo-Arabic' numerals could have been invented in a place where in that epoch they decided to organise the scientific centres and to channel the funds to. But we claim that AT THE ROOT OF THE INVENTION LIES EXACTLY THE SLAVIC TRADITION OF RECORDING NUMERALS BY USING LETTERS. As we have demonstrated in [4v2], ch.1, only within this tradition it was possible for the 'Indo-Arabic' figuring to emerge. If they were invented in Europe, it means that in Europe they used the Slavic letters and language. And if they were invented in Russia, it means that Western Europe simply made use of the new notations, having possibly altered them; in particular, having repositioned five with six and three with seven [4v2], ch.1.

26. TRACES OF REPOSITIONING SIX INTO FIVE IN THE OLD DOCUMENTS.

Here is, for example, the engraving 'Melancholia' by the famous Albrecht Durer who lived allegedly in 1471-1528, pic.67. In the right upper corner there is depicted a magic square of dimensions 4 by 4. The Sum total of the numbers in each line and sum total of numbers in each column is the same and equals 34. In pic.68 this square is enlarged. Have a look at the first square in the second row. Here is number 5. And it should be there, otherwise the square stops being 'magic'. But it is obvious that this five is a result of the correction of the number six which was previously there [4v2] ch.1.

The picture is clear. Today's six was originally perceived as a five. And vice versa, the current five was then perceived as a six. These were the original denominations used in Durer's 'magic square'. But when the symbols were repositioned, the square ceased being magic. So it was necessary to amend the image. It is possible that it was done by Durer himself. Or, it might be done after his death by his pupils or followers. It is possible that the numbers were amended not only on the Durer's drawings. So, on the engraving 'Melancholia' there survived clear traces of the AMMENDMENTS OF THE NUMERALS in the XVI-XVII cc.

27. THE AMENDMENT OF THE OLD DATES IN THE XVII CENTURY.

The fact that in the early XVII century the value of the 'Indo-Arabic' numerals had not been long established yet, was cunningly used by the Scaligerian historians in order to falsify the dates of the early XVII century. Let, for example, in some document the date of YEAR ONE THOUSAND SIX HUNDRED AND FOURTEEN be written down according to the old style, i.e. as 1514, where digit 5 in the shape of letter DZELO denotes the numeral SIX. Then the numeric value of the digit has changed and has become FIVE. If we forget that numeric value of digit 5 was changed we can read the date 1514 'in a new way' (which would be wrong): as 1514. Instead of the correct 1614. As we can see the date became older by a hundred years. Using this simple method it was possible to shift the dates of many early XVII century documents backwards. It is probable that the chronologist widely used this method. As a result many events of then XV-XVII cc. were shifted a century back.

So now a question arises - when did the famous figures of the allegedly XV-XVI cc. really live: the rulers, scientists, writers, artists and sculptors… For example we are being assured that A.Durer lived in 1471-1528. Doubtfully so. Most likely he lived in the late XVI - early XVII cc. As the old value of the dates like 15(…) which are marked on his works was 16(…). And therefore his engravings, star maps for Ptolemy's Almagest, etc. were made not in the early XVI century, but in the early XVII century. To recap, our analysis of Almagest showed that this book in its contemporary version appeared not earlier than the beginning of the XVII century [3v1]. Therefore Durer's star maps for Almagest were made approximately at the same time.

28. SCANDINAVIAN GEOGRAPHICAL TREATISES AND MAPS OF OLD RUSSIA.

From a great variety of geographical names cited in the Scandinavian chronicles and geographical treatises [5v2]. ch.9, we will choose only three, presenting the most interest to us at the moment: 1) RUSSIA-HORDE - the very same Great = 'Mongol' Empire of the XIV-XVI cc; 2) DON - river; 3) EUROPE.

We would like to explain the meaning of the sign '=' used in the following list.

The Mediaeval cartographers sometimes themselves identify some of the geographical names clearly saying, for example, that 'Thrace is the same thing as Grikkland' [523],p.96. Some 'patchings' were discovered by the historians. Some were added by us. We mark all of them with the equal sign.

&& WHAT RUSSIA-HORDE WAS CALLED BY DIFFERENT PEOPLES.

It turns out that Russia-Horde of the XIV-XVI cc. was called the following names (some of them possibly referred not to the entire Empire, but to its parts):

Scandinavian RUSIA = RUTSCIA = RUZTSIA = (Scand. RUZCIA) - RUSLAND = Scand. RUZALAND = RIZALAND (Scand. RISALAND) = LAND OF GIANTS = Scand. GARDARIKI = LAND OF CITIES (CITY is 'GOROD' in Russian) = HORDE-RIKI, i.e. HORDE-STATE, Scand.GARDAR = VELIKY GRAD (Rus.GREAT CITY) = GOROD = GRAD, Old Slavic (Slavonic) = GRHAS, ancient Indian (Old Ind.) = HOUSE (DOM in Russian) = GRHAS, ancient Ind. = GARDAS, Lithuanian (GARDAS, Scand.) = GUARD RAIL (OGRADA in Russian) = GARDAS, Scand. = GARDS, Got. (GARDS, Scand.) = HOUSE, FAMILY (DOM, SEMIA in Russian) = SAMARIA - SARMATIA, land of Sarmatians, see the city of SAMARA = KYLFINGALAND, Scand. = LAND OF BELLS = AFRICA = THRACIA = TURKEY = TATARIA = BLALAND = OSTARRICHI = ASIAN-TATAR-EMPIRE = AUSTRIA = SCYTHIA (SCITHIA, Scand.) = SITHIA, Scand. = CIPHIA or CITHIA, Scand. = CITIA, i.e. China! = SCOTIA, hence SCOTLAND = SCOT-LAND, SCYTHIA is named after MAGOG! = SVITJOD THE GREAT (SVITJOD HINN MIKLA, Scand.) = SARMATIA+ALANIA=GOTHIA, i.e. SCYTHIA was divided into these three regions = THE GREAT SVITJOD (The Great Saint) = GODLAND, Scand. = LAND OF THE GREAT GOD, or LAND OF GODS, or GOD'S LAND = LAND OF GOTHS = GOTHIA (GOTH LAND), GOTHS = GODS = GOD = GAUTAR = GEATS = HETHITES (OR HITTITE) = HOMELAND OF THE GIANTS = JOTUNHEIM = JOTLAND = GREAT GOTHIA = NOBLE GOTHIA (Scand. REIDGOTLAND = HREIDGOTAR). The Great Svitjod was at first populated by the Turks, i.e. closely connected with TURKEY. The Great Svitjod probably included THE LITTLE SVITJOD, i.e. SWEDEN.

Furthermore, the Old Russia = THE GREAT SERKLAND, sometimes is placed either in Africa or close to Africa = THRACIA = Scand. KVENNALAND = QUENLAND = KUNALAND = LAND OF THE AMAZONS = LAND OF WOMEN-QUEENS (Scand. QUEN-LAND or QUEEN-LAND) = LAND OF SERES, i.e. RUSSII (RUSSIANS), hence ASSYRIA, then SCITHIA = CHINA! = LAND OF SARACENS! – A Muslim country = CHALDEA! = PALESTINE! = MESOPOTAMIA! = INDIA, i.e. a DISTANT land, where the division of INDIA into THREE INDIAS – is, most likely, the division of Russia into THREE HORDES. PARTHIA was populated from SCITHIA, where at some point Parthia was probably used for PRUSSIA = PRUTENIA =PRT = P+RUSSIA = White RUS (RUSSIA).

It is possible that Rus (Russia) = Bjarmaland = Land of Boyars or Barms (Bjarmians, Beormas). Where the name Bjarmeland = Great Permia was later used only for the territory of modern Germany, Austria and Italy. Later the historians relocated the name Great Perm (or Great Permia) to the territory of the Romanov Russia.

Going forward, Rus' (Russia) = Scithia = BARBARIA, according to the English sources.

We will add some identification which we encountered: RUS (RUSSUA) = KINGDOM OF PRESTER JOHN, and will also integrate some synonyms of Rus' (Russia) which were used in the English sources. See [517], ch.3:1.5. So.

THE ANCIENT RUS (RUSSIAN STATE) = SUSIE, RUSSIE, RUISSIE, RUSIA, RUSSIA, RUTHENIA, RUTENIA, RUTHIA, RUTHENA, RUSCIA, RUSSCIA, RUSSYA, ROSIE.

Let us point out the name RUTHIA. Without vowel marks we have RT or RD. It is simply HORDE, RAT'(ARMY). One of the most best-known names of the Great Empire. It turns out that the English called Ancient Rus' (Russia) absolutely correct – HORDE.

Such amplitude of the synonyms can be explained by the importance, which the World Empire acquired in the XIV-XVI cc. Each nation among the many peoples of Europe, Asia, Africa and America populating it, would give it their particular name. That is why such a variety of names survive to our time.

To remind you, the Empire was in close connection with the Ottomans, i.e. with the Cossack Atamans. Russia and Ottoman Empire (Atamania) began to grow apart only with the Romanovs coming to power in Russia. The relationship deteriorated and turned into the military confrontation.

The 'ancient' Empire of Alexander III of Macedon (Alexander the Great) is the phantom reflection of the Ottoman Empire (Atamania). [2v2], ch.1:18-19. By the way, why was Alexander called The Two-Horned ISKANDER? The meaning of the word Two-horned is clear - it is the Ottoman crescent. But what about ISKANDER? Could it mean 'a man from SCANDIA', i.e. a man from SCITHIA! See above the identification of SCANDIA and SCITHIA.

&& WHICH MEDIAEVAL RIVERS WERE CALLED BY THE NAME DON.

The Scandinavian sources inform us of the following identifications:

DON = DANUBE = DANUBIS (Scand. DANUBIUS) = DUN (Scand. DUN) = DANUBIUM (Scand. DANUBIUM) = DYNA (Scand. DYNA) = HISTER, HYSTER (Scand. HISTER, HYSTER) = ISTR (Scand. ISTR) = DNESTR (or DNIESTER) = DON = THANAIS (or TANAIS) = TANAKVISL = DUNA (Scand. DUNA) = WESTERN DVINA (or DAUGAVA RIVER) = DAN = JORDAN – JOR+DAN.

Such variety is very simple to explain. We have already said that earlier DON used to mean RIVER. As we showed in [4v1], ch.6:2.12, the todays Moskva-river sometimes used to be called Don.

&& THE SONS OF BIBLICAL JAPHETH.

According to the Scandinavian sagas, the seven sons of Biblical Japheth ruled Europe. Where it is told in great detail who owned what. In [5v2], part 3, we showed that the settlement of the sons of Japheth is another reflection of the Great Empire conquering Europe and was ruling it for a long time.

The sons of Japheth are the seven major peoples or the seven Euro-Asian regions which were a part of the Empire during the first stage of its expansion in the XIV century. They are:

1)MAGOG = 'MONGOLS' = GREAT MIGHTY = GOTHS; 2) MADAI – the very same Mongols; 3) IVAN (JAVAN) OR IVANS (JAVANS) – IVAN KALITA = BATU KHAN, who conquered the West; 4) TURKS – TATARS = TIRAS, Southern part of the Empire; 5) TOBOL – Siberian part of the 'Mongol' Empire or BALTIA;6) GOMER – ET-RUSCAN ITALY, FLORENCE and Western Europe in general; 7) MESHECH = MOSCOVIA. The very same original MECCA.

29. CATHERINE DE'MEDICI IS A REFLECTION OF THE RUSSIAN CZARINA SOPHIA PALAIOLOGINA AND MARY STUART IS A REFLECTION OF ELENA VOLOSHANKA, I.E. ESTHER.

'Catherine de'Medici is among the MOST FAMOUS WOMEN OF THE PAST. The heiress of the well-known Florentine Medici family, the wife of the French king Henry II and regentess on behalf of the juvenile kings of the ruling Valois dynasty, SHE LEFT A DEEP MARK IN THE HISTORY OF FRANCE. FOUR CENTURIES AGO SHE WAS CONSTANTLY TALKED OF AND WRITTEN ABOUT. This was mostly due to the bloody events of The St. Bartholomew's Day massacre of 1572. The massacre of the Huguenots in Paris shook the whole of Europe… Her personal drama fired the imagination and was perceived with undiminishing interest by close and distant descendants' [659], p.3-4.

In reality Catherine de 'Medici is to a great extent the reflection in the Western chronicles of Sophia Palaiologina, the famous Russian-Hordian princess, the wife of Ivan III the Terrible. Karamzin informs us that they called Ivan III – the Terrible: 'He was the FIRST to be given the name of GROZNY (Terrible) in Russia' [362], v.6, column 215. He was also called the GREAT. We will repeat that he is the reflection of Ivan IV Vasilievich the Terrible from the XVI century.

Today Sophia Palaiologina is dated to the XV century. And Catherine de' Medici lived in the XVI century. However, there is nothing surprising in such a hundred years shift. We discovered it in the history of the XV-XVII cc. [4v1]. Ch.2:2 and [6v1], ch.6:2. In the Bible Catherine-Sophia are described as the Queen Vashti (Astin) the first wife of King Artaxerxes.

It is quite challenging to point out the original of Sophia-Catherine in the XVI century, as the epoch of Ivan IV suffered particularly thorough cleansing by the historians. From what survive it is only possible to understand that the image of Sophia Palaiologina combined with information about several wives of 'Grozny' (the Terrible) – Anastasia and Maria [6v1], ch.7.

Elena Voloshanka, the rival of Sophia Palaiologina in the Russian-Horde court, the very same Biblical Esther, reflected in the Western chronicles as the notorious Diane de Poitiers and also as the famous Mary Stuart, her contemporary from the XVI century. Please make note of the similarity between the names Esther and Stuart. Biblical ESTHER or ESTER or STR without the vowel marking (on account of TH turning into T) was considered in Europe as the name STUART, i.e. STRT, without the vowel marking. Or, in other words ASTRUM (ASTER), i.e. a STAR in Latin.

The following 'merging' result derived from the parallelism between the Western European 'Habsburg dynasty' and the Russian-Horde dynasty of czars-khans of the XIV-XVI cc. The brief gist of it is as follows.

# Catherine de Medici is the reflection of Sophia Palaiologina.

# Diane Poitiers (and Mary Start) is the reflection of Elena Voloshanka, i.e. of Biblical Esther.

# Henri II d'Orléan is the reflection of Ivan III=IV the Terrible.

# The death of the king Henry II is the reflection of the death of czar-khan Vasilii III, i.e. Biblical king Ahab.

# Biblical prophet Micah is the famous seer Michel de Nostredame (Nostradamus).

# The Huguenot-Protestant rebellion in France against the Catholics is one of the manifestations of the Reformation revolt in the 'Mongol' Empire of the XVI century. Such uprisings, the Oprichnina in the XVI century Russia in particular, reflected in the Bible as 'slaughter inflicted by the Jews on the Persians'.

# The notorious massacre of Saint Bartholomew's day France in 1572 is the response of the Empire to the rebellion of the Protestants Huguenots. It is a partial reflection of the crushing of the Jewish heresy in the metropoly of the Empire and its other regions.

# The disgrace of Mary Stuart and her execution in prison is the reflection of the disgrace of Elena Voloshanka = Biblical Esther who was put in the Hordian prison and died there.

# In the British history of the XVI century the legendary queen Elizabeth Tudor (1533-1603), who reigned in 1558-1603, is the phantom reflection of Sophia Paleologue. Her name Eli-Zabeth or Eli-Sabeth could have been a distortion of the name Great Sophia or Al-Sophia. i.e. the name of Sophia Palaeologue.Besides the name TUDOR probably originated fromT-HORDE, where the article T was put in the beginning of a word, where it was necessary to stress its significance.

We are assured that Ivan the Terrible's proposal of marriage to queen Elizabeth allegedly failed, as did the proposal of marriage to Mary Hastings and that purportedly Elizabeth never married. Now it is clear that it is not true. Elizabeth, aka Sophia Paleologue, DID MARRY Ivan the Terrible and became the famous queen-khaness. Together they ruled the Empire. Which England was a part of. That is why on the pages of the English chronicles Elizabeth-Sophia is reflected as the English ruler.

In the epoch of Reformation the history was re-written. In Europe it was declared that allegedly Elizabeth never married, and that Ivan the Terrible marriage proposal to her failed. In the Russian history Elizabeth remained under the name of Sophia Paleologue.

Thus the Russian-Horde story of Esther is reflected in the Western chronicles twice. First - in French history as Catherine de Medici and her rival Diane Poitiers. The second time - in the Anglo-French history as Elizabeth Tudor and her rival Mary Stuart.

See the parallelism we have discovered in fig.69 [7v1], ch.4. It turns out that the story of Esther = Elena Voloshanka was colourfully described by 'ancient' Suetonius and Tacitus. Notably in the versions close to the Biblical one [RI], ch.2.

We would like to repeat that in that time Scotland was used as a name for the Land of Scythians, i.e. Russia-Horde [4v2], ch.6. The death of Elena Voloshanka at the end of the XVI century was the result of the temporary defeat of the heresy of the Judaizers. It is clear, that in the metropoly of the 'Mongol' Empire and its provinces the execution of the heretic Elena = Esther at that point was quietly accepted. The name and cause of the heretic later became an emblem of the Reformation in the XVII century.

In the Russian chronicles death of Elena Volosanka is covered extremely poorly. It is quite clear. The story of Esther rather sensitively affected the family of Ivan III = IV the Terrible. It is quite possible that after Voloshanka = Esther and her son were takenprisoners, they were exiled as far as possible from the metropoly. Banished out of sight. They could have easily chosen the British Isles as one of the furthest provinces of the Empire. They probably considered it impractical to exile them to Hordian America due to its extreme remoteness. England was far more convenient. On one hand, far enough, on the other - within close range. Out there Elena = Esther was executed. The local governors of Russia-Horde in England, the locals and the chroniclers witnessed the momentous events reaching them from the metropoly. Some distinguished prisoner was brought from the mighty capital of Russia-Horde. It immediately sparked the interest of the English towards her. Her story was written down according to their understanding of it. The description turned out fantastical in many respects. Later, when England separated from Russia-Horde in the XVII century, the story of Esther was declared to be 'purely Franco-English', and it became known as the story of Mary Stuart. At that point the writers sprang into action. F. Schiller created a popular tragedy about Mary. Stefan Zweig wrote a famous novel. In all these narratives it is difficult to recognise at first glance the true events of the struggle between Sophia Paleologue and Elena Voloshanka. As the authors by that time had forgotten the core of the matter.

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