THE EPOCH OF THE XIX CENTURY
1. CRITIQUE OF SCALIGER'S CHRONOLOGY.
There is a long tradition of doubt in the accuracy of today's accepted version. Let us name just a few of the scientists who criticised the chronology of Scaliger and Petavius and who thought that the true chronology of ancient times was fundamentally different.
De Arcilla – XVI century, the professor of the University of Salamanca. The information about his research is vague. It is only known that de Arcilla argued that 'ancient' history was invented in the Middle Ages [1v].
Isaac Newton (1643-1727) – the great English scientist, mathematician and physicist. He studied chronology for many years. Published a large manuscript 'The chronology of ancient kingdoms amended' [1v].
Jean Hardouin (1646-1729) – the important French scientist, the author of a great many manuscripts on philology, theology, history, archaeology and numismatics. The director of the French Royal Library. Wrote a number of books on chronology in which he strongly criticized the entire structure of the Scaligerian chronology. According to him the majority of the 'ancient monuments' were made significantly later or are even forgeries.
Petr Nikiforovich Krekshin (1684-1763) – personal secretary of Peter I the Great. He wrote a book in which he criticized the version of the Roman History recognised today. At the time of Krekshin it was still 'very fresh' and was not perceived as something obvious [4v2], ch.2:30.
Robert Baldauf – a German philologist of the second half of the XIX – early XX cc. Private docent at the University of Basel. The author of the book 'History and Criticism' in four volumes. Based on philological grounds, he came to the conclusion that the monuments of 'ancient' literature have much later origin than it is believed and were created in the Middle Ages [1v].
Edwin Johnson (1842-1901) – the English historian. In his work he strongly criticized the Scaligerian chronology. He believed that it should be significantly shortened [1v].
Nikolai Alexandrovich Morozov (1854 – 1946) – outstanding Russian scientist-polymath. Created a breakthrough in research on chronology. Launched an extensive critique of Scaligerain chronology and history. Proposed the ideas of several new scientific methods of analysis of chronology [1v], ch.1.
Wilhelm Kammeyer (the end of the XIX century – 1959) German scientist and a lawyer. Developed methods to determine the authenticity of the old official documents. He discovered that almost all the classical and early Mediaeval Western-European documents were the later fakes or copies. Arrived at a conclusion about the falsification of the ancient and Mediaeval history. Wrote a number of books on this subject.
Immanuel Velikovsky (1895-1979) – Doctor- psychoanalyst. He was born in Russia and lived and worked in Russia, England, Palestine, Germany and the USA. He wrote a number of books on the subject of ancient history, where relying on the research conducted by N.A.Morozov (but not citing him anywhere) he pointed out some contradictions in the history. Attempted to explain them by using the 'theory of catastrophism'. In the West he is considered to be the founder of the critical school in chronology. However, fundamentally I.Velikovsky was trying to protect the Scaligerian chronology from too many major reconstructions. The fact that in Western Europe I.Velikovsky's work on history was known better than significantly earlier and more profound works by N.A.Morozov, impeded the development of the New Chronology in the West.
To summarise, the inconsistency of the Scaligerian chronology was clearly indicated by the scientists of the XVII-XIX cc. A thesis on the falsification of the classical texts and ancient monuments was formulated. But no one except N.A.Morozov could find a way to build the correct chronology. Even he failed in creating it. His version turned out to be half baked and inherited a number of significant errors of the chronology of Scaliger-Petavius.
2. EVEN IN THE XVIII CENTURY THE ROMANOVS' RULE IN RUSSIA REMAINS IN MANY WAYS THE OCCUPATION OF RUSSIA BY FOREIGNERS. A LIST OF THE ACTIVE MEMBERS OF THE RUSSIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES IN THE XVIII-XIX CC.
When the Romanov dynasty came to power the ruling class in Russia largely consisted of foreigners. The Romanov historians evasively invented a slippery 'explanation' for this. They said that the Romanovs, in good faith, summoned the learned foreigners to Russia to enlist their help in pulling the country out of the swamp of backwardness and ignorance. To turn the Russian beasts into people, as Peter I the Great used to say , v.5, p.569-570.
The foreign stranglehold in Russia, continuing for the first 200 years of the Romanovs' rule, was an occupation of the former metropoly of the 'Mongol' Empire. The serfdom law was introduced by the Romanovs and was a straightforward enslavement of the native-born population on the Russian lands seized by the foreigners.
Let us address the history of the Russian Academy of Sciences. It was created in 1724 on the order of Peter I , book 1, p. V. We are told that Peter I 'not having found any talents in Russia' summoned the Western-European scientists, so they could enlighten the barbaric Russia and raise up successors worthy of them out of the poorly educated local young people. Amongst the scientists invited from Europe there were indeed outstanding thinkers, for example the brilliant mathematician Leonhard Euler. However they usually draw a veil over the fact that ALL the members of the Russian Academy, since 1724 up to 1742 were entirely foreign, except for Adadurov Vasili Yevdokimovich, elected to the Academy in 1733 , book 1. Thus PRACTICALLY THROUGHOUT THE FIRST TWENTY YEARS ONLY FOREIGNERS WERE THE RUSSIAN ACADEMICS. But even after that the OVERWHELMING MAJORITY OF THE ACADEMICS WERE FOREIGN UP UNTIL 1841, when the situation eventually changed , book 1, p.50.
In 1841 the new 20 academics were elected. There were no foreigners among them anymore. To understand the picture on the whole we made a graph, fig.103 [7v1], ch.1, where we show the percentage of foreigners among the academics of the Russian Academy of science from the moment of its founding in 1724 up to 1917. The time axial coordinate shows all the years of Academy elections. For each year we calculated the percentage of foreigners who became academics that year. In the diagram this variable is constant until the next year of elections. The question of who among the academics is foreign and who is not is solved very easily: in the edition  there is registered the original foreign name of each foreign member of the Academy.
In fig.104 we give a smoothed graph. It is obtained from the previous one by averaging over the decades.
It can be clearly seen that predominantly up until 1841 it is foreigners who become the academics. This important fact is being 'explained' to us somewhat like this. They are saying that over the period of more than a hundred years the foreign members of the Russian Academy couldn't raise worthy successors from the Russian scientists. With great difficulty the well-meaning and considerate foreigners searched for rare talents in the vast territories of Russia. But they found 'catastrophically little'. The barbaric Asiatic country. The forests, the snow, the bears. And so again and again they had to turn to the enlightened Europe and bring scientists of merit from there.
But the problem was not the lack of talents in Russia. At the beginning of the XVII century Russia was conquered by the foreigners who were far from being interested in the restoration of the Empire.
In [4v2], ch.2:31-32, we published materials about the difficult struggle that M.V.Lomonosov began against the academics-historians who were foreign. That is why it is so useful to understand how many academics-HISTORIANS in the Russian Academy of Sciences in the XVIII-XIX were foreign. Who created the Romanov-Miller version?
IT APPEARS THAT ALL OF THE ACADEMICS-HISTORIANS BEFORE M.V.LOMONOSOV WERE FOREIGN. There are eleven of them. Among them are such 'creators of the Russian history' as the already known to us Gerhard Friedrich Müller and Gotlib Bayer or Theophilus Siegfried (Gotlib=Theophilus Tr.Note). Thus over the first 18 years of the existence of the Academy of Sciences THE RUSSIAN HISTORY WAS WRITTEN EXCLUSIVELY BY THE FOREIGNERS-ACADEMICS. It was them who laid its fictitious foundations. Only in 1742 M.V.Lomonosov was elected an academic , book 1, p.14. He was the first home grown academic who was not only a naturalist, but also a historian. Having found himself in the Academy he very quickly realised what was going on. Instantly a fierce fight flared up between him and the academics-foreigners about the correct interpretation of Russian history. The resistance shown to M.B.Lomonosov was cohesive and furious.
In fig.105 a graph is presented showing what percentage of the academics-historians in the Russian Academy of Sciences was comprised of foreigners. Over the period of more than a hundred years this diagram almost remains at a 100-percent. It starts falling only in the middle of the XIX century reaching zero by 1900.
Over the period of 117 years from 1724 to 1841 OUT OF THIRTY FOUR ACADEMICS-HISTORIANS THERE WERE ONLY THREE RUSSIAN ACADEMICS in the Academy of Sciences. They are – M.V.Lomonosov, J.O.Yartsov and N.G.Ustrialov , book 1. All the rest of the 31 academics were foreign. Thus up until the middle of the XIX century the proportion of the foreign historians in the Russian Academy exceeded ninety percent!
Over the period of more than a hundred years foreigners were in full control of the writing of the Russian history. It was them who decided which Russian documents ought to be destroyed, which – to re-write and which to preserve. The home historians were shown the door, prohibited from the archives and primary sources.
Only beginning with 1841 there started to appear a substantial numbers of home grown scientists amongst the academics-historians. But it was too late. The false foundation of the 'Russian history' was already laid and firmly imbedded in concrete by the foreigners.
The results of the 'activities' of the foreign historians is known only too well to us. Today their followers tell us with conviction that there was no navy in Russia before Peter I the Great. They allege that Peter FOR THE FIRST TIME EVER gave the order to build in Russia simple little 'boats' to start with and big ships afterwards. The historians hired by the Romanovs completely wiped out from history the colossal naval expeditions of the XV-XVI cc., when the Russian-Hordian and Ottoman=Ataman fleet colonized America for instance. And not just America. Moreover the Hordian army crossed the ocean not in some rickety canoes, but in ships with several rows of heavy artillery [6v2], ch.6. The entire Russian history prior to the XVII century was declared by the foreign historians to be the cave dwelling Middle Ages. We are being taught this way ever since. They implant this lie into young people's heads. Fortunately many traces of the truth survive.
3. THE FINANCIAL STRUCTURE, THE CASTS OF THE GREAT EMPIRE, THE MEDIAEVAL JUDAISM.
Let us address an interesting question about the financial system of the Empire and about the social class of the financial treasurers. The new chronology fundamentally changes our perceptions, for example, about the place of the Hebrews in the Middle Ages. This question was of interest to many before and still is now. The common view point, that the Hebrews are the religious community which under some ill-defined circumstances scattered around the world, is hardly satisfactory. Why this and only this community dispersed and did not disappear? If the ancient Jewish state was somewhat very large, than the picture would have been clearer. Than the Jews could have survived by virtue of its multiplicity. But no, we are told that the Jewish state was very small. But so many of such small kingdoms died out. However the Hebrew community survived. Moreover it is spread over all the civilized countries. And occupies a prominent place in the social and political life, science and culture. And of course in the finance.
Let us turn to the history of the Great Empire. What place did the ancestors of the present day Jews occupy in it?
In the Empire there can be seen the idea of the ant heap or a beehive. There were established social classes, hereditary clans, which were occupied by a specific line of work. The traces of the cast Imperial system survive in India with its casts of warriors, workers, priests, etc. In recent Russian history we know at least one such an example. This social cast is a cast of priests. Until the second half of the XIX century only a son of a priest and a priest's daughter could become a priest in Russia. This law was abolished only in the XIX century. This fact was widely discussed in Russian society.
Presumably, there were casts, the professional divisions in the Russian-Horde Empire. In particular a professional class of the financial, so to say, bank officials. They operated the accounts of the Empire dispersed about Europe, Africa and America. The life of a vast Kingdom in not possible without a smooth-running financial mechanism. It comprised of not only the financial apparatus of czar-khan in Yaroslavl = Veliky Novgorod, but also the multiple accounting offices scattered all over the world from America to China [5v1], ch.12:4. It included the settlement of trade between the East and the West, the collection of taxes, the payment of salary, the control over the flow of the precious metals, the financial support to the army, etc. The work demanded a great attention to detail, specific qualification, accounting skills, suggested certain severity towards the violators of the financial regulations. Hence a tendency to build complex systems of rules which is most pronounced in the Talmud, for example. And of course the money was the 'blood' of this entire enormous Imperial system. The people who from one generation to another 'handled money' of the contemporary world developed an aspiration to always be around it. Among the people related to the monetary system of the modern world there are probably many descendants of the old imperial financial stratum. There must be many of them in the banking sphere.
It is quite possible that within one professional guild there could have formed a religious community. Which later became a part of the contemporary Judaism. In the Empire there prevailed religious tolerance and none of the religions were persecuted. They can ask us: why then there didn't emerge, for instance, 'the military religion', which all the warriors of the Empire would follow? Our answer is as follows. The kind of activity played an important role. As it is clear that the internal connections within the social stratum of the Hordian financiers, the officials in the Imperial monetary system, was considerably stronger, than, let's say, the professional ties in the social cast of the Hordian warriors. The bankers of America of that time and the bankers of Europe of that time were connected closer than the soldiers in America and soldiers in Europe. There is nothing strange in this. Just the different nature of the activity. That is why the financial stratum was particular amongst the Imperial system. The other social stratums could have been infused with different religions. But the financial guild turned out to be more homogeneous in the religious sense. However the Jews had before and still have now the religious differences.
It is clear why the Imperial financial guild didn't need any special separate state. In one sense they already had it. It was the entire Horde Empire. The present day cosmopolitism is to some degree the legacy, the memory of a vast field of financial activity spread over all territories from America to China. Hence – a slight attachment to their birthplace, the land of their ancestors, ease in the relocation. In the epoch of the Empire all of this could be attributed to the occupation of the Imperial treasurer. The officials of the Imperial treasury often moved from one place to another, they could be assigned to work in the most remote territories. At the same time inevitably there appeared the drive for solidarity, a certain aloofness.
And so, in the XIV century the 'Mongol' Empire emerged. Its founders – the Russian-Horde czars-khans started to order the life in the immense territories. In particular, they created the monetary system of the Empire and the social stratum of people attending to it. In the XVI century Judaism was the prevailing religion within this financial stratum. Possibly not just in this social group, but within it was universal or almost universal. Due to the specific of their activity – the control over the Imperial finances – this social stratum obtained power, which was not anticipated by the founders of the Empire.
The czars-khans of that time did not realise in time the danger hanging over them. In the XVI – early XVII cc. The Empire was destroyed. The power of money blossomed on its ruins.
It becomes clear why after the collapse of the Empire in its European splinters-states, revolutions started. The implication of the events is simple. The Empire was ruined at the hands of the military Imperial governors. In Germany, France, etc. They immediately acquired absolute power on the ground, having turned into the independent kings, dukes, etc. Naively thinking that it was them who had won. They were mistaken. Now they began to deal with them one by one. Some were decapitated, some were swept away by the 'outraged people'. The driving force behind all such revolutions was money. As a result they openly declared the domination of money over noble rank, over ancestry. This was the motto of the French revolution and of the English revolution. In the Horde Empire there ruled a principle of ancestry and gentility. Nobility was respected and entitled to power. After the revolt of the Reformation, wealth acquired precedence. Nobility withdrew into the shadows, and in some places was declared to be a negative attribute.
Our idea that the mediaeval Jews or their significant part originated from the treasurers of the Empire is supported by some sources. For example, it is said about King Wenceslaus: 'According to one of the verdicts of the Nuremberg Sejm in 1390 the King ordered the Jews (we should not forget that THEY ALL AND ALL THEIR POSSESSIONS WERE A PART OF THE PROPERTY BELONGING TO THE TREASURY OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE) to give away all the securities and debt liabilities which they had in their possession… The Jews had to conform with the governmental order and they did: but needless to say some time later on following that financial turnaround the affairs returned back to its previous state' , v.2, p.449.
It is all clear. The Imperial government ordered its treasury to waive the debts of their knights. It takes place after a prolonged war. The treasury waives the debts. But it doesn't become poorer for that. Not before long everything returns to its former status quo. The Empire did become impoverished.
The situation when a Mediaeval knight demands money and not from anyone but from a Jew in particular, became a part of classic literature. Let us recall Pushkin's 'The Miser Knight'. The Knight is convinced for some reason that the Jew's money is his own, the knight's money. At the very least he has an uncontested share in it. But the Jew assures him that 'there is no money left'. A usual conversation with an accountant or a treasurer who at all costs tries to limit cash withdrawal. The knight however firmly insists on receiving the Imperial payment due to him.
It is peculiar that intrinsically the persecution of the Jews in Europe began straight after the collapse of the Horde Empire. In the Lutheran Chronograph of 1680 we read that in 1615 'the old brotherhood between the countries is restored: the Jews are ordered to leave Wormatia. It might mean some kind of segregation or banishment of the Jews in 1615, i.e. immediately following the Times of Troubles. Here it is very interestingly a passing reference to the ANCIENT UNION OF THE COUNTRIES of the Western Europe. As we understand it now the union was being a part of the united Empire.
Following the collapse of the Empire the majority of its officials and military, also including the frontline workers of the Imperial treasury (the Jews), found themselves under suspicion in the Reformist Western society. There emerged the notorious ghettos in Europe.
Why is it widely thought that it is the Jews who wrote the Bible? As we see it now it is not quite right. Here we encounter the terminological confusion typical to the Middle Ages. The Biblical books were written by all sorts of different people. For example, the Old Testament was mainly written by Those Who Praise the Lord (this is the translation of the word 'Jew' into Russian) – the priests who worshiped God, who marched with the army of Horde-Atamania to conquer the world, the Promised Land. The word 'Jew' used to mean simply 'priest'. It is a modification of the Greek word Nereus (Hiereus). It easily transforms into a word Yevrey ('Jew' in Russian) due to the two way reading of the Church Slavonic letter Izhitsa. The Bible was written by the Hordian priests, i.e. the Jews. Or by Those Who Praise the Lord i.e. by the Jews.
4. HOW THE EMPIRE WAS RULED.
# There still remain the psychological traces of the fact, that Russia-Horde was the metropoly (parent state) of the Great Empire. The peoples of Russia until now are 'bad at being tamed', they still have the spirit of former liberty' alive in them, the spirit of the 'masters of the Empire'. They have quite a strong common sense, and a rather sceptical attitude towards statutory law. Striving to 'live by their own customs', 'like their ancestors'. This is only natural: as the laws were written by the Empire for the others, i.e. for the conquered provinces. On the other hand, the Russian love of freedom is combined with a deep sense of royalism which also manifested itself in the XX century. In Russia they are always ready to die for the czar, for the idea. In other civilised countries the people more readily accepting of statutory law. Possibly due to the fact that they are the descendants of not only the conquerors = the 'Mongols', but also the native subjugated population, who at some point were forced to comply with the orders of the metropoly, i.e. Russia-Horde and the Ottoman Empire.
# How did the Empire operate for 300 years, from the XIV to the XVI cc? How on earth did Russia-Horde manage to mobilise so many soldiers to colonise such vast lands? One thing is to quickly conquer the territories. To achieve this – due to the low level of population in many regions of Eurasia and America – small, well-armed and well trained army units were often enough. But it is quite a different matter to maintain the order afterwards for a lengthy period of time and to educate the local population of the entire continents. Besides, how was it possible without delay to pass on the orders to the remote troops, administration and the bankers from the centre of Russia-Horde? As in those times there were no fast means of communication like the telegraph, the radio or the telephone. How then did a khan-czar rule the gigantic Eurasian + African + American Empire, 'over which the sun never sets'?
Firstly, beginning with the XV century there were two concurrently ruling centres established in the Empire. One was in Russia-Horde, which was also called Israel, and the other was in Czar-Grad, the capital of the Ottoman Empire (Atamania) which was also named Judea. Besides sometimes the entire Empire was called Israel or Judea, when the matter concerned respectively either the military aspects of its activities, or its hierarchic, religious aspects. Mainly Russia controlled the Western Europe and Asia, and the Ottoman Empire – the Mediterranean, the Middle East and Africa. America, which was colonised at the end of the XV century, was under the mutual control of Russia-Horde and the Ottoman Empire–Atamania.
Secondly, the important bonding agent was the common Christian religion spread by the Horde Empire = Israel all over the world at that time. The 'Mongolian' missionaries marching amongst the Israeli armies of the Crusaders = the Hordians created the affiliated Catholic branches of the Orthodox churches on colonised territories, by which they provided the spiritual unity for the Empire. The religious unity is one of the cornerstones on which the Imperial power was based over the duration of several hundred years. The united Christian church fulfilled an important state function. It was the exact reason why the Western rebels of the XVI-XVII cc. delivered the first strike on Christianity [6v2], ch.1.The 'progressive religious reform' helped to divide the czardom into bits, each of them 'got' so to say 'their own new religion': Protestantism, Catholicism, Islam, etc.
Thirdly, in the foundation of the Empire lay its professional military organisation, i.e. the Horde = Rat'. We should not assume that in every town and settlement of the Empire from China and Europe to Africa and America there was necessarily stationed a military post of the Hordians-Cossacks. There was no need for that. The small, but well-armed military units were stationed only in the major centres from which time to time they would march to the remote regions to collect taxes or for the punitive actions. Such form of control, when the professional troops appear seldom, but act fast, publicly and firmly, was particularly effective. The subject's fear of the remote central power was also of importance. The permanent presence of the Horde unit in every settlement was not necessary. There would never be enough soldiers and weapons for that. The rulers understood that a remote but imminent threat is more effective, than the permanent lodging of the troops in sight of the population.
The descendants of the Hordian conquerors formed the core of the nobility which was established locally, for example in Europe, Japan and China [5v1], ch.12:12.
The stability of the Empire rested on the extreme military superiority of the Horde which established in the XIV century and provided the very opportunity of such a grandiose colonisation of the world, the equivalent of which never took place again. In the early XIV century in Russia-Horde there commenced the industrial production of iron and gun-powder, which created the weaponry including cannons. The Cossack cavalry raised in the vast Russian steppes was an important factor. There was nothing like it outside of Russia. In fact the 'Mongol' cavalry armed with muskets and accompanied by the artillery didn't meet any resistance. As we know from the seizure of Czar-Grad in 1453, i.e. the Old Testament Jericho, [6v1], ch.5:3, when required, the heavy artillery which could quickly break any stone walls, immediately advanced upon the walls of the cities that grimly held together. However, in the majority of cases it was enough to merely demonstrate their might in order to crush any attempts at rebellion.
The speed of the delivery of the military and administrative orders was of course limited by the transportation facilities of that time. But, as the chronicles tell us, the Horde first created an effective road network with equestrian posts along them [4v1], Introduction: 3. Secondly the main task of the 'Mongol' governors from America to China was to provide order, to collect tax and to send a part of it to the metropoly. All of this didn't require petty regulations from the centre and was achieved by the local administration without having to be supported by daily orders from Moscow or Czar-Grad. The messengers were sent on matters of a grand scale and of special nature. In those cases, we can imagine, the couriers moved fast.