A.T.Fomenko , G.V.Nosovskiy
HOW IT WAS IN REALITY

INTRODUCTION
THE EPOCH BEFORE THE XI CENTURY

This section is very short. There is no information in surviving written sources about any events prior to the XI century. There was no writing at that time. It appeared only in the X-XI cc. According to Scaliger's history writing originated in ancient antiquity allegedly well before "the beginning of A.D."

In reality THE WRITTEN HISTORY of mankind first emerges from the gloom only in the X-XI cc. All surviving ancient documents, including those attributed to "deep antiquity", in reality describe the events of the XI-XVII cc. Many of them were forcibly consigned to the distant past by the erroneous chronology of Scaliger-Petavius.

The epoch prior to the XI century should be envisioned as "primeval", the dawn of civilization. Primitive tools from those times have survived to this day and are exhibited in museums and galleries dedicated to early man, who allegedly lived many-many centuries and even millennia B.C. Pottery fragments, bones, flint tools, stone knives and axes, scrapers, ashes of cave fires, bone and stone arrow-heads and spear-heads, ornaments made of mammoth bones and teeth of predators. It is these galleries of the modern museums that give us an accurate indication on human life up to the X-XI cc. During that time people still dwelt in caves and dug-outs. They didn't yet possess the know-how to build any significant structures, let alone any buildings of wood or stone.

But we shouldn't assume that the stone and bone implements and everyday objects became obsolete during the XI century. In reality they existed and were widely used significantly later, up until the XV-XVI cc. For example, in the XVI century the Germans came to build the Moscow Kremlin with their STONE AXES, which contemporary German historians tentatively date to the II century B.C., fig.1 [ШАХ] ch.10:4. Thus the stone tools coexisted with the metal ones up until the XVI century. The construction of the Moscow Kremlin is dated by the historians as the end of the XV century, but in the New Chronology it is attributed to the second half of the XVI century.

It turns out that all such axes – and there are quite a few in Germany – are currently dated by the archaeologists to the deepest antiquity, the first half of the II century B.C. The scientists' and archaeologists' view, that the stone tools found in Europe are exclusively tools of the prehistoric time, is flawed. As we can see the Germans in the XV-XVI cc. AD were still heavily reliant on the use of stone axes.

This incidentally implies a simple solution to a famous historical puzzle: how did the allegedly ancient cave people manage to make the round or oval holes of a REGULAR SHAPE in the stone tools? Here for example is 'most ancient' stone axe in the Ohrid archaeological museum in Macedonia [ШАХ] ch.10:4. A deep oblong hole with the even vertical walls was made from a hard stone. Could a cave man, who didn't have any tools make such a thing? Surely you cannot achieve such a regular shaped hole by simply scraping one stone against the other by hand. However now, when we understand, that the stone tools were used up until the XVI century everything fits together. The holes in the stone axes could be made using the mechanisms with rotating drills. Which could have been diamond-tipped for example. Or simply made out of hard rock.

Another example. We are told that in Russia, in 'Ancient' Rome and in England they were writing on birch-bark and it was a very-very long time ago. In fact, as it turns out, the birch-bark letters were in use up until the XIX century and in some places even until the XX century. The thing is that up until the XX century paper was not cheap. The birch-bark, particularly in the North, was much cheaper [4v1], ch.3:11-12. Thus, 'antiquity' becomes considerably closer to our time.

Contemporary textbooks tell us in a lot of detail about people's lives in the epoch allegedly earlier than the X century. Let us remember some 'ancient' cultures.

The legendary 'Sumerians'. The 'most ancient' civilizations of Mesopotamia and America. The powerful pharaohs of Egypt. The Trojan Kingdom and the notorious Trojan war of the allegedly XIII century B.C., lyricized by the blind poet Homer. The enlightened 'ancient' China. The mighty Etruscans. The great 'Ancient' Greek civilization. Even more 'Ancient' Rome which evolved from the Etruscan civilization. 'Ancient' Carthage and its wars with the mighty Rome. Mysterious 'ancient' India with its treasures. The mighty Early and Mediaeval Arab Caliphates. The 'earliest' Biblical kingdoms of Israel and Judaea. The 'ancient' Assyria, Syria and Persia. The Mediaeval European feudal lords in their mighty gloomy castles.

All of this, they tell us, existed before the X century A.D. It is not true. All of this did exist, BUT IN A COMPLETELY DIFFERENT EPOCH, AND MOREOVER OFTEN IN A DIFFERENT LOCATION. More specifically, after the X century A.D. I.e. in the last millennium. In other words, the dates of all the events of the 'classical antiquity' should be corrected, moved upwards to their true places in the interval between the X and the XVII cc.

Where were the first settlements situated before the X century? Presumably at first the majority of people lived in a warm zone, not far from the equator. In particular in the Mediterranean, India and Central America. The climate there was equable, there were a lot of fruit-bearing plants and enough drinking water. This promoted the fast procreation of people. There was enough food, there were no cold winters and it was easy to build dwellings. There were neither climate contrasts, nor substantial temperature differences.

But the rampant procreation could not last forever. Soon 'it became too congested'. The intertribal conflicts began, as well as the struggle for territory and food. A part of the population was driven out to the North and to the South. Having found themselves in the midland the people discovered that the climate there was much more severe. The winters were cold. Noticeably less food. It was necessary to build dwellings to survive in the bitter winter cold. The weak migrants perished, but those who survived did so only because they managed to adapt. The load on the intellect increased, it was necessary to create house building methods, agricultural tools and equipment for hunting and navigation on the rivers and the sea, etc.

In other words these people were compelled to develop a civilisation. Over the course of time the descendants of the first wave of migrants, having adapted to the new environment, created their own cultural centres, and after reproducing in large enough quantities began to widen the zone of their habitat. The colonization had begun, but on a higher technological level. It is possible, that is how the epoch of the XIII-XIV cc. began. But we'll talk about it later. And now let us go back in time.

To conclude, the epoch before than the XI century is immersed in darkness due to the virtually total absence of any surviving documents of that time. We will repeat that only in the X-XI cc. for the first time there was conceived the very idea of written language. Possibly, in Ancient Egypt originally in a form of hieroglyphs-pictures. The recording of thoughts in this way is primary, and only later evolved into the more contemporary forms.

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