А.Т.Fomenko, G.V.Nosovskiy
NEW CHRONOLOGY OF EGYPT

(Astronomical dating of the monuments of Ancient Egypt)
Studies of 2000-2001
NEW CHRONOLOGY OF EGYPT Publishing house AST-ASTREL, Moscow, 2007, third, updated and improved edition.

CONTENTS

Foreword

Chapter 1. EGYPTIAN ZODIACS

1.1. Egyptian zodiacs and a possibility of their precise dating with astronomical method

1.2. Astronomical dating of the Egyptian zodiacs and the related difficulties. Why Egyptologists avoid astronomical dating of the zodiacs

1.3. Our new approach to dating of the Egyptian zodiacs

1.4. A burial character of the zodiacs in Egypt

1.5. Pictures of the Egyptian zodiacs, which we used

1.6. Stylization of the zodiacs in the description of Egypt by Napoleon

1.7. Our conventional notifications of the Egyptian zodiacs

Chapter 2. THE FORMER ASTRONOMICAL DATINGS OF THE EGYPTIAN ZODIACS

2.1. The Round and Long Dendera zodiacs

2.2. The two zodiacs from Esna

2.3. The Athribian zodiacs of Flinders Petrie

2.4. The Thebaic zodiac of Brugsch

2.5. Astronomical dating in the works of Egyptologists

Chapter 3. A NEW APPTOACH TO DECODING OF THE ZODIACS OF EGYPT

3.1. Disadvantages of the former decodings of the Egyptian zodiacs

3.2. A new approach to decoding of the Egyptian zodiacs. The main horoscope and private horoscopes

3.3. The Egyptian zodiac as an astronomical description of the entire calendar year, covering the date of the main horoscope

3.4. Compared to the previous researchers, who stopped only on one, best in their opinion, variant of decoding, we consider all the acceptable variants

Chapter 4. SYMBOLS OF THE EGYPTIAN ZODIACS: NEW, MORE COMPLETE DECODING

4.1. The symbols of constellations
4.1.1. Aries
4.1.2. Taurean
4.1.3. Gemini
4.1.4. Cancer
4.1.5. Leo
4.1.6. Virgo
4.1.7. Libra
4.1.8. Scorpio
4.1.9. Archer
4.1.10. Goat
4.1.11. Aquarius
4.1.12. Pisces. Zodiacs of "the Thebaic" type

4.2. The symbols of Decapolises and the "permitting ability" of the Egyptian zodiacs
4.2.1. Decapolises on the Long zodiac "DL"
4.2.2. Separation of the ecliptics on 36 parts and the accuracy of the presentation of planets on the Egyptian zodiacs

4.3. How to differ male and female figures on the Egyptian zodiacs

4.4. The symbols of planets of the main horoscope
4.4.1. A planetary staff on the Egyptian zodiacs
4.4.2. Saturn in the main horoscope
4.4.3. Seth, Anubis and Thoth as symbols of Saturn and Mercury
4.4.4. A mess between Saturn and Mercury in the astral symbolism
4.4.5. Our supposition about the origin of the old cult of Saturn
4.4.6. Jove in the main horoscope
4.4.7. Mars in the main horoscope
4.4.8. Venus in the main horoscope
4.4.9. Mercury in the main horoscope
4.4.10. The symbols, accompanying Mercury on the Egyptian zodiacs
4.4.11. A picture of Mercury in two positions at once
4.4.12. Mercury as a symbol of "bifacial god" Janus-Ivan
4.4.13. Sun in the main horoscope
4.4.14. An astronomical sense of the Egyptian symbol "eye"
4.4.15. Moon in the main horoscope

4.5. The symbols of planets of private horoscopes
4.5.1. The first example: the planets of private horoscope of the Autumn equinox on the zodiac "DL"
4.5.2. The second example: the planets of private horoscope of the Winter solstice on the zodiac "DR"
4.5.3. The third example: the planets of private horoscope of the Summer solstice on the zodiac "AN"

4.6. Boats, snakes and other symbols under the feet of figures as the signs of taking out

4.7. The signs of visibility of planets of the main horoscope

4.8. The symbols of equinoxes and solstices
4.8.1. The symbols of the point of Autumn equinox in Virgo
4.8.2. The symbols of the point of Winter solstice in Archer. "An astronomical hieroglyph" of Archer with a minimal horoscope
4.8.3. The symbols of the point of Spring equinox in Pisces
4.8.4. The symbols of the point of Summer solstice in Gemini. "An astronomical hieroglyph" of Archer with a minimal horoscope

4.9. Additional astronomical symbols on the Egyptian zodiacs
4.9.1. The Easter full moon
4.9.2. A bird-son on the Long Dendera zodiac "DL"
4.9.3. A symbol of the morning and evening dawn
4.9.4. The scene with the cut head near Aquarius
4.9.5. The meeting of Mars with Saturn on the Long Dendera zodiac
4.9.6. Sticking of Taurean (bullfight)
4.9.7. A wolf on the headland on Dendera zodiacs

4.10. Accessible and not accessible variants of decoding of the zodiacs

4.11. The place of observation: Cairo or Luxor (Ibrim)

4.12. Beginning of the year on the Egyptian zodiacs

Chapter 5. A METHOD OF ASTRONOMICAL DETERMINATION OF DATES, CODIFIED ON THE EGYPTIAN ZODIACS

5.1. The seven planets of ancientry. Zodiacs and horoscopes

5.2. A possibility of the appearance of calculated horoscopes on the Egyptian zodiacs

5.3. Movement of the planets around the zodiac

5.4. A split of the zodiacal belt on the canstellations

5.5. "An astral calendar". How often the same horoscope repeats?

5.6. Calculation of the positions of planets in the past. Program HOROS. The accuracy of the modern planetary theories is enough for dating of the Egyptian zodiacs

5.7. Dating of the Egyptian zodiac by the total of its main and private horoscopes
5.7.1. Step one. Determination of the planets of the main horoscope in all the possible variants
5.7.2. Step two. Calculation of the dates for all the variants of decoding of the main horoscope
5.7.3. Step three. Check of the received dates by the position of planets, attributes of visibility and by private horoscopes. Scrapping of incomplete solutions

5.8. Uniqueness of the restoration of dates, written on the Egyptian zodiacs. Final (full) solutions

5.9. "The colored" Egyptian zodiac

5.10. "A scale of constellations" on the zodiac

5.11. The points of approximate placement of the planets on the Egyptian zodiac ("the best points") and record keeping of the order of planets

5.12. An average distance to the best points as an approximate identification of the quality of astronomical solution

5.13. An example of entry data for the program HOROS

5.14. A check-list of an astronomical solution

Chapter 6. DATES, WRITTEN ON THE MONUMENTAL CHURCH ZODIACS OF DENDERA AND ESNA

6.1. The zodiacs from Dendera and Esna as a part of the huge tsar necropolis in the "Luka of Tsars" on the Nile

6.2. The history of opening and study of Dendera zodiacs

6.3. Decoding of the date on the Long Dendera zodiac "DL"
6.3.1. Pictures of the Long Dendera zodiac
6.3.2. The colored Long Dendera zodiac
6.3.3. The figures of constellations on the zodiac "DL"
6.3.3. The figures of planets of the main horoscope on the zodiac "DL"
6.3.4. Private horoscopes on the zodiac "DL"
6.3.4.1. The horoscope of Autumn equinox on the zodiac "DL"
6.3.4.2. The horoscope of Winter solstice on the zodiac "DL"
6.3.4.3. The horoscope of Spring equinox on the zodiac "DL"
6.3.4.4. The horoscope of Summer solstice on the zodiac "DL"
6.3.5. The full solution of the Long zodiac: April 22-26, 1168 A.D.
6.3.6. A check-list of the full solution of the Long zodiac

6.4. Decoding of the date on the Round Dendera zodiac "DR"
6.4.1. Pictures of the Round Dendera zodiac
6.4.2. The colored Round Dendera zodiac
6.4.3. The figures of constellations on the zodiac "DR"
6.4.4. The figures of planets of the main horoscope on the zodiac "DR"
6.4.5. Private horoscopes on the zodiac "DR"
6.4.5.1 The horoscope of Autumn equinox on the zodiac "DR"
6.4.5.2 The horoscope of Winter solstice on the zodiac "DR"
6.4.5.3 The horoscope of Spring equinox on the zodiac "DR"
6.4.5.4 The horoscope of Summer solstice on the zodiac "DR"

6.4.6. Checking and scrapping of the preliminary solutions
6.4.7. A full solution of the Round zodiac: morning of March 20, 1185 A.D.
6.4.8. A check-list of the full solution of the Round zodiac

6.5. Decoding of the date on the zodiac from the big church of Esna "EB"
6.5.1. Pictures of the zodiac from the big church of Esna
6.5.2. The colored zodiac from the big church of Esna. The symbols of constellations and planets of the main horoscope
6.5.3. The main horoscope and "the duplicates" of planets on the zodiac "EB"
6.5.4. The attributes of visibility on the zodiac "EB"
6.5.5. The private horoscopes
6.5.6. A full solution of the zodiac "EB": March 31 – April 3, 1394 A.D.
6.5.7. A check-list of the full solution of the zodiac "EB"

6.6. Decoding of the date on the zodiac from the small church of Esna "EM"
6.6.1. Pictures of the zodiac from the small church of Esna
6.6.2. The colored zodiac
6.6.3. "The constellation brackets" in a row of planets of the main horoscope on the zodiac "EM"
6.6.4. The figures of planets of the main horoscope on the zodiac "EM"
6.6.5. The private horoscopes and the additional scenes on the zodiac "EM"
6.6.5.1 The horoscope of Autumn equinox on the zodiac "EM"
6.6.5.2 The horoscope of Winter solstice on the zodiac "EM"
6.6.5.3 The horoscope of Spring equinox and an additional scene between Aquarius and Goat on the zodiac "EM"
6.6.5.4 The horoscope of Summer solstice on the zodiac "EM"
6.6.6. A full solution of the zodiac "EM": May 6-8, 1404 A.D.
6.6.7. A check-list of the full solution of the zodiac "EM"

6.7. Agreement of the received dates with the new chronology and with our reconstruction of the history

6.8. A supplement of 2002. The modern state of Dendera and Esna zodiacs in Egypt
6.8.1. The zodiacs of Esna
6.8.2. The zodiacs of Dendera

6.9. The clarified draughtsmanship of the zodiac "EB"

Chapter 7. DATES OF THE ZODIACS OF EGYPTIAN TOMBS

7.1. The Athribian zodiacs of Flinders Petrie ("AV"+"AN")
7.1.1. Decoding of the main horoscope. Six variants of identification of planets
7.1.2. Private horoscopes and additional scenes on the Athribian zodiacs
7.1.3. Results of the calculation by six variants with a strict order of planets
7.1.4. Results of the calculation by six variants with an undefined order of invisible planets
7.1.5. A full solution of the Athribian zodiacs: May 15-16, 1230 for the lower zodiac and February 9-10, 1268 A.D. for the upper zodiac
7.1.6. Comparison with the Athribian zodiacs by the place of planets
7.1.7. Checking by the private horoscope of the Summer solstice
7.1.8. Checking by "the scene of meeting on Leo"
7.1.9. An archaic June beginning of the year on the Athribian zodiacs
7.1.10. The final identification of three birds-planets
7.1.11. Check of the sustainability of the solution
7.1.12. Conclusions

7.2. The Thebaic zodiac of Brugsch "BR"
7.2.1. The horoscope of demotic additions on the zodiac of Brugsch
7.2.2. The horoscope "without staffs" on the zodiac of Brugsch
7.2.3. The horoscope "in boats" on the zodiac of Brugsch
7.2.4. Conclusions
7.2.5. A variant with baboon-Moon in "the horoscope without staffs"

7.3. The zodiac of Ramses VII "OU" ("Thebaic colored")
7.3.1 The figures of constellations
7.3.2. The figures of planets
7.3.3. The main horoscope and additional conditions
7.3.4. The preliminary solutions of the main horoscope
7.3.5. Checking by additional conditions
7.3.6. Conclusion: on the zodiac "OU" there is a date September 5-8, 1182 A.D.

7.4. Two zodiacs from the tomb of Petosiris ("P1"+"P2")
7.4.1. The history of opening and study of the zodiacs of Petosiris
7.4.2. General description of the tomb of Petosiris and its zodiacs
7.4.3 Planets on the zodiacs of Petosiris
7.4.4. The symbols of constellations. "An equinoctial split" on the zodiac "P2"
7.4.5. The figures of constellations on the zodiac "P2"
7.4.6. The main horoscope of the zodiac "P2"
7.4.6.1. A case of dissipated central round
7.4.6.2. A case of collected central round
7.4.7. The symbols of equinoxes, solstices, fractional horoscopes and additional scenes on the zodiac "P2"
7.4.8. The astronomically possible dates of the zodiac "P2"
7.4.9. The figures of constellations and planets of the zodiac "P1"
7.4.10. The main horoscope and additional scenes on the zodiac "P1"
7.4.11. Astronomically possible dates of the zodiac "P1"
7.4.12. An astronomical dating of a pair of zodiacs "P1"+"P2"
7.4.13. Dating of the zodiac "P2" at weakened conditions
7.4.14. Conclusions

7.5. A zodiac from the tomb of pharaoh Seti I ("SP")
7.5.1. The tomb and zodiac of Seti I
7.5.2. Zodiacs of the first and second Thebaic types
7.5.3. Construction of the zodiac "SP"
7.5.4. Zodiac "SP" as a repeat of the zodiac "OU"
7.5.5. "SP" As an independent zodiac
7.5.6. A difference between the zodiacs "SP" and "OU"
7.5.7. The main horoscope of the zodiac "SP"
7.5.8. Date on the zodiac "SP": August 5-7, 1206 A.D or August 14-16, 969 A.D.

7.6. A zodiac from the tomb of Senenmut ("SN")
7.6.1. "The secret" tomb of Senenmut and the zodiac "SN"
7.6.2. The main horoscope of the zodiac "SN"
7.6.3. A private horoscope of Summer solstice on the zodiac "SN"
7.6.4. A date on the zodiac "SN": August 14-16, 1007 A.D.
7.6.5. Discussion of the received solutions of the zodiacs "OU" "SP" and "SN"

7.7. "A short zodiac" from the church in Herment ("KZ")
7.7.1. Description of the zodiac "KZ"
7.7.2. The main horoscope of the zodiac "KZ"
7.7.3. The most probable date on the zodiac "KZ": May 6-8, 1308 A.D.

7.8. A zodiac from the tomb of Ramses VI ("RS")
7.8.1. The tomb of Ramses VI and its zodiac
7.8.2. The symbols of constellations on the zodiac "RS"
7.8.3. The planets of the main horoscope on the zodiac "RS"
7.8.4. The main horoscope of the zodiac "RS"
7.8.5. A date on the zodiac "RS": February 4-5, 1289 A.D. or February 20-21, 1586 A.D.

7.9. A zodiac from the tomb of Ramses IV ("RC")
7.9.1. The tomb of Ramses IV – the church of first Christians
7.9.2. The church in Luxor as an old Christian church
7.9.3. Five rows of figures on the zodiac "RC"
7.9.4. The pictures of zodiacal constellations
7.9.4. The planets of the main horoscope
7.9.5. A date on the zodiac "RC" – it is April 15-16, 1146 A.D. or April 10-17, 1325 A.D.

Chapter 8. RESULTS OF DATINGS OF THE EGYPTIAN ZODIACS

8.1. A general picture of datings of the Egyptian zodiacs

8.2. Stability of the received by us datings

8.3. Unsolved issues of decoding of the Egyptian zodiacs

8.4. Astronomical dating of the Sumerian plates

Chapter 9. ANCIENT EGYPT AS A HUGE TSAR BURIAL GROUND OF THE GREAT EMPIRE OF THE XIV-XV CENTURIES A.D. OUR RECONSTRUCTION

9.1. Introduction

9.2. Our supposition

9.3. Medieval Egypt

9.4. Review of the generally accepted version of the history of Egypt, based on the wrong chronology

9.5. Egypt of the time of pharaohs – a Christian country

9.6. Why it is considered today that before Champollion Egyptian hieroglyphs were read in a wrong way

9.7. Destruction of signatures on the ancient monuments of Egypt

9.8. Who, when and what for knocked down names, names of cities and countries on the monuments of Egypt?

9.9. In what state the Egyptian ancientries reached us

9.10. Mamelukes-Circassians-Cossacks in Egypt

9.11. "Ancient"-Egyptian texts were often written with only consonants

9.12. An Orthodox cross on the Colossi of Memnon

9.13. Construction of a cross, drawn on the Colossi of Memnon

9.14. "Ancient"-Egyptian Osiris – it is, probably, Christ

9.15. The huge burial constructions of "Ancient" Egypt – the tsar burial mound of the great empire of the XIV-XVI centuries

9.16. A supposition about whom could be Tutankhamon

9.17. A scheme of our reconstruction of the history of Egypt

9.18. The Egyptian history by chronograph of 1681

9.19. According to the "ancient" Egyptians, pharaoh Sesostris ruled not only in Egypt, but in Rus

9.20. A question about the authenticity of the tomb of Tutankhamon

Chapter 10. EGYPTIAN PYRAMIDS. THE READ RIDDLE OF CONSTRUCTION OF PYRAMIDES

10.1. Egyptian pyramids and Scythian burial mounds

10.2. Arabic signatures in the pyramids

10.3. What was drawn on the knocked dowm facing of the pyramides?

10.4. Signatures on the facing of pyramids

10.5. What for big pyramids were built

10.6. Pyramids of concrete

10.7. The forgotten invention of medieval alchemistry – a geopolymer concrete of the Egyptian pyramids, churches and statues

10.8. A philosophic stone

Appendix 1. DESCRIPTION OF THE COMPUTER PROGRAM HOROS FOR DATING OF THE EGYPTIAN ZODIACS

Appendix 2. ENTRY DATA FOR THE PROGRAM HOROS FOR FINAL VARIANTS OF DECODING

Appendix 3. THE NUMBERS OF JULIAN DAYS AND THE DATES OF EQUINOXES AND SOLSTICES FOR THE BEGINNINGS OF CENTURIES IN THE PAST

Appendix 4 LISTS OF SOLUTIONS OF THE ATHRIBIAN ZODIACS WITH WEAKENED CONDITIONS

LITERATURE (EXCEPT THE BOOKS ON NEW CHRONOLOGY, LISTED IN A SEPARATE SECTION)

BOOKS ON NEW CHRONOLOGY

ABOUT THE AUTHORS

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