A.T.Fomenko , G.V.Nosovskiy

Chapter 6.


# The Conquistador Hernan Cortes is the Cossack ataman Herman-Yermak Timofeyevich.

# Diego Velazquez, the governor-sovereign's vicegerent of the emperor Charles V in Cuba is Stroganov or the Stroganovs, the sovereign's vicegerent of Ivan the Terrible allegedly in the Urals. Or perhaps in Cuba not far from America.

# Emperor Charles V is czar-khan Ivan IV the Terrible [6v].

# The clash between Cortes and Charles V's authorities is the conflict between ataman Yermak and the authorities of Ivan the Terrible. However the authorities flirt with Yermak-Cortes, invite him to serve and declare a major campaign.

# The ships sail off. The sudden fury of Diego Velazquez in the beginning of Cortes' campaign is the reflection of Ivan the Terrible's sudden wrathful decree at the start of Yermak's expedition.

# The campaign of the allegedly small crew of Hernan Cortes to Central America is the voyage of the allegedly small crew of ataman Yermak to the Siberian Czardom.

# The true historical event was the voyage of Herman-Yermak from Russia via Siberia to Central America, to Mexico. The Western chroniclers described this campaign as the voyage of Hernan Cortes from the island of Cuba to Mexico. I.e. they described only the last stage of Yermak's conquest, omitting his voyage through Siberia, The Far East and The Pacific Ocean.

# The accounts of the both campaigns emphasized the fact that the colonizers were equipped with the firearms which the locals did not possess. Due to this in particular, victory was gained, despite the high courage of those on the defensive side.

# The American Azteks are described in the Russian chronicles as the 'Siberian Ostyaks'.

# King Moteuczoma or Motecuhzoma, who was later killed and who fought against Cortes in Mexico, is the czar-khan Kuchum, who was also later killed and fought against Yermak in the 'Siberian Czardom'.

# The seizure of the city of Meshiko, the capital of Mexico by Cortes is reflected as the seizure of the Asiatic city of Siberia, the capital of the Siberian Czardom by Yermak. Both the American capital and the Czardom itself were called the same name MESHIKO.

# The Spanish conquistadors of the epoch of the 1519-1524 years are the Russian-Horde Cossacks and Ottomans-Atamans, i.e. also the Cossacks of the epoch of the 1581-1584 years.

# The well-known 'La Noche Triste' ('the night of sorrows') is the severe defeat of the conquistadors and Cortes' wounding is the well-known night attack of khan Kuchum on Yermak's crew and the death of the famous ataman.

# Cortes' letters to the Emperor Charles V are Yermak's messages to the czar Ivan the Terrible.

# The temporary setback of the conquistadors is the temporary retreat of the Cossacks after Yermak's death. They soon regrouped with fresh reinforcements. Following which the wave of the colonization ultimately overwhelmed the vanquished country.

# The name MEXICO or MESHIKO is a slight distortion of the name MOSOCH-MESHECH or MOSCOW. Thus was also called the vast MOSCOW Tartaria, spanning not only over the Asiatic Siberia at that time, but also the greater part of America. The word MESHECH itself could have originated from sMESHAYU ('I will mix' – translated from Russian), sMESHEniye ('medley, mixture' – translated from Russian), i.e. a mix of races. Hence the word MUZHIK (a man, a peasant). The word MOSOCH entered the Bible as the name of one of the biblical patriarchs. That is why in some old chronicles the word MESHIKI could have been understood as meaning MUZHIKI (MEN).

# Why is it still not possible to trace the Ostyak capital Isker-Siberia in the Asiatic Siberia? The answer: because it was situated in America. It is the Atzec city Meshiko = Mexico.

# The confusion in the description of Yermak's voyage by the Western chroniclers is clear. Yermak-Herman went from Russia to the East, via Siberia – to America. But the Western chroniclers decided that he – Hernan Cortes – sailed from the island of Cuba to the West, to America. The fact is that it is indeed as early as at the end of the XV century that the Hordian and Ataman troops appeared in America, having crossed the Atlantic ocean. It was the Columbus expedition [6v2]. Since then the Western chroniclers confused the directions of the Horde or the Ottoman invasions. As Russia and Ottoman (Ataman) Empire entered America from both directions from the West and from the East. Or in fact Yermak's army set out to Mexico from the island of Cuba in the Atlantic Ocean.
# Cortes' voyage in 1519-1524 was dated by the chronologists approximately sixty years earlier than the voyage of Yermak: 1579-1584. As we understand now, Yermak's expedition is in its correct chronological place. But the Western Europeans were noticeably mistaken and shifted the dates approximately 60 years down the line. The duration of both campaigns roughly coincide.

# Ataman Yermak's death at the end of his campaign and the serious wound of the conquistador Cortes at the end of the voyage to Mexico. The Romanov historians deceived us when assuring that Yermak purportedly died in Asiatic Siberia. There are surviving testimonials in the Russian chronicles that Yermak was buried in Mexico, close to the two large volcanos in the Meshiko valleys.


According to the commentators the book by Bernal Diaz 'The True History of the Conquest of New Spain' is the most authentic and the most colourful among the conquest chronicles, the most valuable material on the conquest history of America'[64:3], p.320.

At the same time 'the most complete Siberian chronicle was written by SAVA YEFIMOV, who finished his book on the 1st September 7145 {1636}. The aforementioned Yefimov declares in it that HE COMES FROM AMONG THE YERMAK'S COMPANIONS AND THAT HE WAS AN EYEWITNESS TO EVRYTHING DESCRIBED BY HIM' [876:3], 306-307.

Thus emerges before us the name of the Cossack, a participant of Yermak's expedition, who left behind a whole book describing the voyage. It provided the basis for the chronicles known to us today. Sava Yefimov's accounts correspond well with another edited version of his work known today as the 'book of Bernal Diaz de Castillo'. Presumably in the XVII century there were several editions made of the book by Cossack Sava Yefimov = Bernal Diaz. It was rewritten both in Russia, in Siberia and in Western Europe, in Spain. Some things were changed, in particular characters' names, however the core of the matter remained the remained the same. That is why we managed to restore the true facts, having detected a striking correspondence between the Siberian Chronicles and the Spanish = Ottoman book by Bernal Diaz. That is why in the history of Russia there remained a version which was later called the 'book by Sava Yefimov', and in the history of Ottoman Empire its other version under the name of the 'book of Bernal Diaz'.

The chronicle of Bernal Diaz is considered to have been published in 1632, and Sava Yefimov's chronicle was completed in 1636. These dates are close. As we understand now it is not a coincidence. We speak here about the same remarkable piece of work.

In the both versions the same kind of contemptuous sneer of the later historians towards Sava Yefimov = Bernal Diaz can be felt. Purporting that an 'inelegant' 'swashbuckler' wrote a bulky chronicle. It is of course important for history, but the author was just an 'uneducated bandit'. He has shed much more blood than ink. And thus, we are told, was just spinning a good yarn.

The conclusion. The comrade-in-arms of Yermak-Cortes described the campaign of 1581-1584. In Russia he became known under the name of Sava Yefimov. In Spain he is already famous as Bernal Diaz del Castillo = the Castilian. His work is at the heart of the modern perception of the conquest of Central America. The Romanov historians edited the chronicle, having shifted the place of action exclusively to Siberia. They pretended that Yermak's army had never been to America. In general they did their best to distort the story in such a way, that the mere notion of the Horde Cossacks conquering America at the end of the XVI century began to seem absurd.

Apparently, the story of Yermak is reflected on the pages of the 'ancient' Roman classics, Cornelius Tacitus and Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus, for example. The general Germanicus, the nephew of the Emperor Tiberius (= the reflection of Ivan the Terrible), is the Cossack ataman-conquistador Yermak-Cortes, who conquered Central America [RI], ch.4.

To conclude, the pages of Tacitus, Suetonius, Herodotus, etc. give us a detailed account of the ataman-conquistador Yermak-Cortes. Where a lot of information which survived in the works of the 'ancient classics' is described in the Russian and Spanish (Ottoman) chronicles either more sparsely or is not reflected at all. Now we write a completely new and much more detailed history of the conquest of Central America. The picture becomes richer and more colorful.


Let us turn to the Western-European version of the discovery of the Amazon river in South America. These documents colourfully illustrate the 'relocation of the names' which we detected. In the epoch of the great conquest and then during its second wave in the XV-XVI cc., which in the Bible was called the 'conquest of the promised land', the colonizers brought with them their recollections of their Motherland. I.e. of Russia-Horde and the Ottoman (Ataman) Empire. There were some special people in the Cossack army responsible for the written documents, military and diplomatic correspondence and the archives. The notes of a journey were written, the maps were compiled and reports were prepared for the Imperial administration in the metropoly of the Great Empire. The Horde and the Ottoman armies conquered the vast territories and founded settlements and cities. The people settled down there for a long time and even for good. They carried over here the customs, names and the geographical names from their distant Motherland. They called some of the American settlements the same names as their native European and Asiatic cities which they had left behind forever. The military and battle archives of the conquerors formed the basis of the future American libraries and archives. The chronicles giving us accounts of the events in the Old World also found their way here. The first settlers still remembered their true content, but their descendants were forgetting about the roots of the old texts passed on to them by their fathers and grandfathers. And after a couple of generations they started to think that these dusty chronicles purportedly described the events in the New World. Thus some important events and names of the Old World 'migrated' (on paper) into the New World.

We have repeatedly given the examples of such 'paper relocation' [STKR]. For example, the battle of Kulikovo 'was relocated on paper' from Moscow to the remote India during its colonization by Russia-Horde in the XIV-XV cc. And the battle of Kulikovo was erroneously considered to be the local Indian 'battle in the field of Kurus'. Even the suitable 'battleground' was picked out. It was drawn on the map near the city of Delhi. Since then 'this battle' is considered to be one of the most important events in the history of India.

A similar thing was happening in America. For example, a country Amazonia from Russia-Horde has 'relocated' here too (see above). And appeared on the map as a name of the South American Amazon river, although no Amazon women were ever there.

Let us clarify. In the Horde chronicles which emerged in America, there appeared some accounts of the great Volga river flowing in the meridian north-south direction. Later, when the European origin of the chronicles was forgotten, the descendants of the pioneers decided, that in them there was a description of the great South American Amazon river. As though the magnificent Volga transferred – on paper – its properties to the magnificent Amazon. And for some time, looking into the Russian chronicles, the confused chroniclers were mistakenly convinced that Amazon was allegedly flowing ALONG THE MERIDIAN [ZA], ch.8. In time they of course got things straight and realized the correct direction of the Amazon (it flows approximately along the parallel of latitude). But the old texts, like those of the chronicles of Oviedo, survive in the archives. And raise the commentators' eyebrows. Purporting that he was a wonderful geographer, but was so oddly mistaken.

The documents of the conquistadors contain accounts that allegedly there were CAMELS, ELEPHANTS AND TIGERS in America. However there were never such animals in America and there are none of them now. All such fragments found their way into the chronicles of the Spanish conquest on the territory of America as a result of transporting here the European and Asian chronicles during the colonization of the XV-XVI cc. The Horde Cossacks and Cossack-Amazons remembered Eurasia and Africa, where they saw, of course, the camels, the elephants and the tigers.

On the whole the theme of the 'elephants in America' have been irritating the historians for a long time [6v2], ch.6:27:2. There are a lot of references to the elephants that survive in the American Indian culture [336], v.1, p.206. It is clear now, that, for instance, the American burial mounds in the shape of elephants, were erected in the epoch of the XIV-XVII cc. by the Hordians, who had arrived there recently from Eurasia, where there are plenty of elephants. The elephants were also depicted on smoking pipes. On reflection, the historians declared unfoundedly, that purportedly the American burial mounds and pipes were 'unbelievably ancient', that they were made by the 'primitive people' in a distant epoch, when there were prehistoric elephants and mastodon wandering around America, which later became extinct [336], v.1, p.206. Thus the Hordian-Ottoman constructions of the XIV-XVII cc. were shifted to the 'stone age'. The historians emitted a sigh of relief, having mistakenly thought that they had solved the problem.