THE EPOCH OF THE XIII CENTURY
7. THE ESTABLISHMENT OF RUSSIA AS THE CENTRE OF A NEW EMPIRE, SUCCESSOR OF THE PREVIOUS ONE.
As a result of the decline of the old regime and the capture of Czar-Grad by the Horde-Crusaders in 1204, Russia-Horde, which used to be one of the provinces of the Romaic Empire, comes to the fore. It takes an active part in the Trojan War.
After the collapse of Romea the representatives of the Royal dynasty flee to the provinces. Some of them didn't want to accept the loss of supreme power and began their battle for world domination. According to the Romaic kings' beliefs, which were based on firmly rooted religious principles, the right to possess the world belonged to their Royal family. And not only the lands already known, but also all of those yet to be discovered. This right they regarded as the sacred ancient legacy belonging to them, which under some temporary circumstances happened to be unlawfully taken away from them. Therefore it was imperative to retrieve it.
As a consequence there appeared several states which considered themselves the legal successors of Romea. For example, Empire of Nicaea. Ancient Nicaea is the modern town of Iznik in Turkey. Other kingdoms also appeared. One of them was Vladimir and Suzdal Russia with its capital Rostov Velikii (Rostov the Great), and later in Yaroslavl = Novgorod. Here arrived the Trojan king Aeneas, whose ancestors, as it happens, originally came from Russia. In the Russian chronicles king Aeneas reflected as the famous 'variag' ('Varangian') Ryurik. He unites isolated Russian dominions into a united kingdom [ÍÎÐ] Thus the first czars of Vladimir and Suzdal (at first Rostov and Novgord ones) were the heirs of the Romaic dynasty driven out of Czar-Grad in the beginning of the XIII century. They began their fight to restore the Empire. Aeneas-Ryurik succeeded in creating a powerful multinational state, which initially included encompassed the Volga Region and North Black Sea Region. Ample manpower, horse and economic resources proved to be sufficient to achieve the world dominance by military means.
In the XIV century Ivan Daniilovich Kalita started the Western
campaign, i.e. 'Mongolian' = great conquest. It is possible that the name 'Kalita' is one of forms of a famous title of Calif or Khalif.
Hereafter turbulent political and military events take place. The 'Mongol' invasion from Vladimir and Suzdal Russia begins. The success of the occupation-colonization was based on the unification of numerous peoples on the territory of Russia-Horde into one sole state under the military, i.e. Horde rule. In the late XIII – early XIV cc. For more than three centuries Russia-Horde establishes its domination over the West, Eurasia, Africa and eventually its complete world domination including, across the ocean, America.
The czars of Russia-Horde, who were also called Khans, Khagans, Grand Princes of all Russia, by virtue of dynastic reasons considered themselves the sole rightful heirs of the Romaic Empire, ENTITLED TO ABSOLUTE RIGHT OF SUCCESSION TO OWN POSSESSION THE ENTIRE WORLD. From the surviving odd bits of information we can see that they regarded all the other rulers not yet subjected, as unlawful, temporary usurpers of various territories of the world which belonged to them. THE OPENLY DECLARED AIM, THE MILITARY DOCTRINE OF THE RUSSIAN-HORDE CZARS-KHANS WAS THE SUBJUGATION OF THE ENTIRE WORLD BY MILITARY FORCE. In other words, the retrieval of the ancient legacy. See the diagram of the history of the main empires - The Czar-Grad Empire and the Russian-Horde Empire on fig.20 [7v1], ch.1.
Thus after the fall of Troy = Czar-Grad one of the representatives of the Romaic dynasty – 'antic' king Aeneas-John, the disciple and comrade of Andronicus-Christ, one of his apostles, leaves the destroyed Czar-Grad = Jerusalem and heads with his companions to Russia. His royal ancestors originally came from Russia. This journey was described in particular by 'ancient' Virgil in his famous epic poem 'The Aeneid'.
Having arrived to Russia king Aeneas-John finds here a powerful and rich wealthy kingdom which however is split into principalities ruled by rival princes-khans. Being the descendant of the esteemed Russian people, Aeneas-John takes power in his own hands and establishes a new dynasty in Russia. He unites the Russian lands under one rule. This most important event reflected in our chronicles as 'invitation of variag Ryurik', and the foundation of Veliky Novgorod (Great Novgorod) allegedly in the IX century. It concerned turning the city of Yaroslavl on the river Volga into a capital. In the Latin literature these events were reflected in 'Books since the city's founding' ('Ab urbe condita libri') by Titus Livy as the founding of the city of Rome and the state with the same name in the land of Latinia=Ruthenia by Romulus and Remus (the descendants of Aeneas = Ryurik). Thus famous Royal Rome appeared in the interfluve of Oka and Volga rivers (the land between the meeting point of these two rivers) in the XIII century [ÖÐÈÌ]
By the end of the XIII century a strong czarist reign arises based on the vast natural wealth and resources of the country, and also on the strong and large army - Horde, the backbone of which was made up of the horse cavalry – Cossaks. The word HORDE is, probably, a variation of a modified Russian word RAT', meaning army. The 'ancient' and Medieval word RUTHENIA, which Rus' (Russia) was called, meant RATNAYA – MILITARY country. Some sources call RUTHENIA LATINIA by way of confusing letters 'R and 'L'. The name LATINIA could have also originated from a Russian word 'LYUDNAYA' meaning 'POPULOUS' (country). The advantageous strategic location of Russia played a significant role. Thus in Vladimir-Suzdal Russia there emerged the metropolis of a new Empire, heiress to the Romaic Empire. We call it Russia-Horde or Great = 'Mongolian' Empire.
What did this word 'MONGOLIA' mean? It probably originated from a Russian word 'MNOGO' meaning MANY, many (people), MULTItudinous army, and also from the Russian words MOSH' meaning STRENGTH, MOG meaning CAN, CAPABLE or ABLE, MOGUSHESTVO meaning MIGHT or POWER (hence Magog), MNOGO meaning MANY. N.M.Karamzin and various other authors thought that MONGOLIA is simply a Greek word MEGALION, i.e. GREAT. But the word MEGALION itself most probably also originated from the Slavonic word MOG (i.e. CAN), MNOGO (i.e. MANY). In [4v1], Introduction, we cite the photographs of old mosaics in the Chora Church in Istanbul. Here the word MONGOLIA is spelled as MUGULION, i.e. virtually the same as MEGALION. Until now East Russia is called Veliko-Rossia, i.e. Velikorossia meaning Great Russia. So the "Mongolian' Empire is the Great Empire. In the Russian sources the word Mongolia or Mogolia does not occur. On the other hand the GREAT Russia does come up. The foreigners would call Russia Mongolia. This name is an equivalent of the Russian word VELIKII meaning GREAT.
At the end of the XIII – the beginning of the XIV cc. the great Slavic conquest of the world begins. The historians call it 'Mongolian' and date it in the XIII century, a hundred years earlier. The conquest originates in Russia and is carried out by the Russian czars-khans, direct descendants of king Aeneas.
Aeneas was a relative and a follower of the czar Andronicus-Christ (Andrey Bogolyubskiy). In the Gospels Aeneas-Ryurik is presented as John, Christ's favourite disciple, whom he chose as a son to Mary Mother of God in his place: 'Near the cross of Jesus stood his mother, his mother's sister, Mary the wife of Clopas, and Mary Magdalene. 26 When Jesus saw his mother there, and the disciple whom he loved standing nearby, he said to her, "Woman, here is your son," and to the disciple, "Here is your mother." From that time on, this disciple took her into his home.' (John 25:25-27). According to the biblical legend this disciple's name was John. We will note that Aeneas and John is intrinsically the same name.
Let us look at the matter of Russia-Horde rise in more detail. As we said earlier, after the victory in the Trojan War the leaders of the Crusaders entered the struggle amongst themselves for power. Aeneas-John, who didn't take part in the Crusade of 1204 and fought on the losers' side (although he was a Christian), could not stay in conquered Czar-Grad. He fled to Vladimir-Suzdal Russia, which was, most likely, the motherland of Mary Mother of God, who at the wish of Christ himself became the adoptive mother to Aeneas-John. Hence – the 'ancient' legend that Aeneas' mother was the GODDESS Venus. The capital of Vladimir-Suzdal Russia at the time was Galitch Kostromskoi. Neither Vladimir, nor Suzdal, or any other ancient Russian cities were yet to be built.
Aeneas-Ryurik establishes a new Royal dynasty and builds a new fortified capital – Yaroslavl on the Volga, described in the chronicles as Novgorod Veliky (Novgorod the Great). To be more precise, the city of Yaroslavl was a famous YAROSLAVOVO DVORISHE (YAROSLAV'S COURT) OF VELIKY NOVGOROD. Veliky Novgorod was the name used in its broadest sense for the entire Vladimir-Suzdal Russia. Present day Novgorod on the Volkhov River was cunningly given this famous name much later, in the course of the distortion of the Russian history at the time of the first Romanovs. It bears no relation to the Veliky Novgorod of the Chronicles [4v].
Rostov Veliky (Rostov the Great) became the royal headquarters of Aeneas-Ryurik. This place was not chosen coincidentally. Rostov Veliky was situated in a place hard to access upstream of the river Kotorosl, the turn into which from the Volga was protected by the fortifications of Yaroslavl.
The descendants of Ryurik-Aeneas correctly evaluated the advantages of Russia compared to the old imperial centres in the Mediterranean. In the XIII century they carried out the most important reforms in Russia which turned it into a world power and prepared it for the great Slavic conquest of the world in the XIV century. The reforms were as follows.
1) In the XIII-XIV cc. Ryurik-Aeneas and his successors introduce in Russia 'slash and burn' agriculture, based on the cutting down ('slash') or burning down the forests followed by turning them into the agricultural land. Such methods allowed MASS HARVEST WITHOUT FERTILIZATION for the first several decades. This caused an explosive increase in the population of Russia in the XII-XIV cc, which in its turn allowed the new state to have the advantage in military confrontations.
To clarify. It is well-known that in Russia prior to the XV century 'the original and predominant agricultural system was slash and burn. To break new ground, plot, parch and INCINERATE THE FORESTS was largely customary in Russia as early as in the XIV and XV cc'. [988:00], article - 'Agriculture'. Such a method could not last indefinitely, as it was based on the VAST DEFORESTATION AND IRRETRIEVABLE EXPLOITATION OF THE BENIGN LAYER OF SOIL ACCUMULATED OVER CENTURIES. When the forests began to run out, and the soil in their place started to run dry this method ceased to be effective…
We know that the first agricultural tools in Russia were designed particularly for the 'slash and burn' farming on the site of the burned out forests. 'In Russia such tools were soha (Russian plough) and borona (harrow made of chipping of the tree trunks with the branches 35 to 50 cm long) - two kinds of tools adapted to the stony fields and adapted to the Northern region of Russia, to the REGION OF SLASH AND BURN FARMING' [988:00], article - 'Agricultural equipment and machinery'.
It was for a reason that in Ancient Russia there were so called OGNISHANYE, i.e. the proponents of the 'slash and burn' farming, WHO BURNT THE FORESTS DOWN AND PLOUGHED UP THE BURNT SITES (OGNISHA) WHICH EMERGED IN THEIR PLACE [988:00], article - 'Ognishanye'.
Only in the XV century, approximately 200 years after the burning of the forests started, they began to think, for the first time, about the necessity of LETTING THE LAND REST. 'The three-field system WAS ALMOST NON EXISTENT BEFORE THE XV CENTURY, the first allusion to it occurs in one judicial scroll of 1503. It became significantly widespread by the middle of the XVI century [988:00], article - 'Agriculture'.
Thus the necessity of the multiple field system (when a part of the land was left fallow) appears in Russia only in the XV century and becomes ubiquitous in the XVI century.
The initial stage, which consisted of TOTAL DEFORESTATION AND CONVERSION INTO PLOUHGLAND, had to be swift, as while huge harvests were gathered the population grew fast, spread out in all directions and consumed more and more forests. It is known that the speed of such processes is exponential, i.e. alike to an explosion. That is why it cannot be sustained. The time, spent on burning the forests out in Central Russia and then turning them from the solid wild forest into an agricultural country with vast fields and meadows, amounted to approximately 200 years. Tentatively speaking, from the mid of the XIII to the mid of the XV cc.
The ability of gathering large harvests from the vast spaces WITHOUT CARING TO FERTILISE OR WATER THE FIELDS (in contrast to many Southern regions, in Central Russia the fields are watered by the rain, with no human intervention), which gave the new state a huge advantage over its enemies. It was possible to raise a strong and healthy population. All of which made it possible to create a huge army – Horde, and what's more important, allowed them to constantly nourish it. Such a 'slow start' at the beginning of Horde Russia took around a hundred years: from the beginning to the end of the XIII century.
2) The Russian Horde was an army of a completely new fashion. Unlike all the previous armies Horde was predominantly HORSE CAVALRY.
Most likely the horses were tamed by humans and for the first time were used by the military in the XII century, as early as in the times of the Romaic Empire. Originally the horse cavalry didn't exist. Only noble and wealthy people could afford a war horse. A horse was considered to be a precious commodity. The great majority of the ordinary soldiers were foot soldiers. In order to supply an ordinary soldier with a horse it was necessary to have many herds of horses. For that you would need vast steps, where these herds could graze. There are no steps like that in the Mediterranean. In Russia they do exist. It was the Southern-Russian steps between the Volga and Don rivers which served as a basis for the creation of an enormous army of a completely new kind – horse Horde in the XIII-XIV cc, where each warrior-Cossack would have not one, but several horses, which would allow the Horde to accomplish long-distance marches over the endless vast lands of Eurasia. Moreover it allowed them to move quite fast. As the horses needed pasture, the army was nomadic out of necessity. It would constantly move from place to place.
Before the creation of the horse Horde in the ancient Romaic Empire the mode of travel was predominantly aquatic. That is why the expansion of Romea on the X-XII cc. was carried out mainly by water. In the first place the shores of the Mediterranean and Black seas were dominated. Later – the banks of the big rivers running into these seas: rivers Danube, Dnieper and Don. From the Don River they would haul over to Volga river and end up in Russia, and also in the Caspian Sea and Iran. Thus the ancient Mediterranean community and the Romaic culture appeared. At its heart were the coasts of the Mediterranean Sea. All the capitals were here in the Mediterranean. At first – in the lower reaches of the Nile in African Egypt. Later the capital moved closer to the Black Sea, to the Bosphorus, to Czar-Grad.
Without the sufficient means of transportation on land the ancient Romaic Empire could not develop the inland territories of Eurasia. The vast spaces of the continent distant form the waterways remained inaccessible and unexplored. Only with the advent of the Russian Horde in the XIII-XIV cc., they began to be gradually explored.
Unlike ancient Romea, The Russian-Horde Empire of the XIV-XVI cc. became mainly a land state with ground communications. Naturally, the aquatic means of transportation were also used, but overall the Empire was expanding along the land routs which it created itself.
3) In the XIII-XIV cc. in Russia for that time unprecedented PRODUCTION OF IRON AND IRON WEAPONRY was up and running.
Iron ore can also be found in the South, not exclusively in Central Russia. However smelting of iron requires a lot of fuel. In those times only firewood and charcoal were used for fuel. Black coal and oil (petroleum) were yet to be discovered. That is why Central Russia had an important advantage over the South. There were forests and consequently firewood and charcoal in greater quantity than in the Mediterranean. Let alone that exactly at that time in Russia the TOTAL BURNING OUT OF FORESTS was taking place, please see above. This as a matter of fact was providing an unlimited amount of charcoal, which most likely, allowed Russia-Horde to quickly take the lead in the field of iron smelting and the manufacture of the iron weapons. The Russian czars-khans were able to equip the Horde with iron weapons, which in the Mediterranean were quite expensive and unaffordable to many.
This also gave a huge advantage to the Russian Horde over its enemies.
4) Ryurik-Aeneas and his successors, the Russian czars-khans, skilfully used the GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION OF VLADIMIR-SUZDAL RUSSIA, I.E. INBETWEEN THE RIVERS OKA AND VOLGA, as an enormous natural fortification. From the North, West and East it was parted off by the swamps and harsh woods. Besides from the West the wide Oka River served as a natural barrier.
There was one other significant factor. At that time there was a big difference between the rout from Russia to the Mediterranean and the way back – from the Mediterranean to Russia. They were not completely the same.
The route from Vladimir-Suzdal Russia to the Mediterranean ran alongside the Volga River, then they went by traction (carried or pulled the boats over ground) onto the Don River, and then along the Don River to the Azov and Black Seas. This was the ancient and the only direct route from Russia to Czar-Grad and back. This is the route well-known from the historical sources. There was also a different route to Vladimir-Suzdal Russia – up the river Dnieper and then East by land. But prior to the Russian forest clearing it was not suitable for the troops to march through, as they couldn't move through the virgin forests.
The Russian czars-khans quickly understood the GREAT ADVANTAGE OF THE GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION OF VLADIMIR-SUZDAL RUSSIA IN ANY MILITARY CONFRONTATION WITH THE SOUTH. Please see the map. If a Russian army set out on the march to the South it would move along the Volga and Don rivers DOWNSTREAM. By doing so the warriors could conserve their energy and increase their speed of movement. Having reached their destination quickly, the soldiers would enter the battle and in the case of victory and destruction of the enemy, they could comfortably in the leisurely manner return back home, now moving upstream. Quite the opposite with the enemies' army, who, if marching from the Mediterranean towards Russia, FROM THE VERY START WOULD HAVE TO MOVE UPSTREAM ALONG THE DON AND VOLGA RIVERS AGAINST THE CURRENT, which dramatically decreased their speed and allowed the Russian troops time to prepare.
It is not surprising that from the chronicles we know of MULTIPLE CRUSADES BY THE RUSSIAN PRINCES IN CZAR-GRAD, MANY OF WHICH WERE SUCCESSFUL, BUT WE DON'T KNOW ANY OPPOSITE EXAMPLES – A MILITARY CAMPAIGN FROM CZAR-GRAD TO RUSSIA WHICH ACHIEVED ITS AIM.
5) Ryurik-Aeneas and his successors established in Russia an order aimed at world domination. The state was divided into two parts – civil and military. A social class of Cossacks was created, who were picked for military service in their childhood. They were never to return home. Those Cossacks who lived to a certain age would either retire to the monastery or, if they managed to serve until achieving a high enough rank, would leave the Horde to become civil dukes.
Prior to the XVII century the Cossacks didn't engage in farming, it was strictly forbidden to them. They were fed by the rural peasant population who were paying taxes. The peasants also provided manpower to resupply the Horde: the children of the peasants were drafted into the army as Cossacks. The Cossacks themselves at that time neither married, nor raised children. They knew only how to fight. They did not do anything else. But they fought very well.
Only eventually, after the collapse of the Great Russian Empire in the XVII century the Cossacks were left to their own devices and were forced to begin to independently cultivate farm land, set up a household, marry and raise children. Only then the Cossack states started to emerge, and the Cossacks started turning into a self-reproducing independent social class distinct from the peasant one. But all this would take place in the XVII century, much later than the events we are describing here.
In the latter chronicles, written in Western Europe after the great Slavic conquest, the creation by Ryurik-Aeneas and his descendants in the XIII-XIV cc. of the Old Russian State – RUSSIA-HORDE, was called THE CREATION OF ANCIENT ROME BY THE DESCENDANTS OF AENEAS – ROMULUS AND REMUS, and was incorrectly dated to many hundreds of years B.C.
In the Middle Ages the epic poems by Virgil and, in particular, The Aeneid, were considered as CHRISTIAN WRITING. It is all correct. Virgil most likely was creating his work in the epoch of the XVI-XVII cc. and described the events which took place after the crucifixion of Christ in 1185. However the commentators prefer to talk about Virgil's Christianity as a 'Christian-allegorical interpretation', purporting that Virgil himself was certainly not a Christian, but he is interpreted in 'that way'. It is clear why they keep repeating it. The reason is that the Scaligerian chronology erroneously referred Virgil and his work to the I century B.C., i.e. allegedly before the birth of Christ. It resulted in the artificial contradiction, which has been tirelessly researched, by several generations of historians since the XVIII century.
Everyone is familiar with a legend of the foundation of Rome by the descendants of Aeneas - Romulus and Remus. As we now understand this means the rise of Russia-Horde in the end of the XIII – the beginning of the XIV cc and the emergence of the 'Mongolian' Empire. The famous she-wolf who suckled Romulus and Remus, is a partial and symbolic reflection of the Russian river Volga which 'raised' the brothers Ivan and Georgiy Danilovichi, the founders of the Great Empire. At the same time the image of the Roman she-wolf is also a partial reflection of Mary Mother of God who raised baby Jesus next to whom on the icons is often depicted baby John the Baptist [ÖÐÈÌ]
Two brothers who found Rome are Georgiy and Ivan Danilovichi. Georgiy Danilovich is also known as Genghis Khan and Ivan Danilovich – as Batu-Khan. Genghis Khan is also known as Georgiy the Victory-bearer (The Conqueror) and Ryurik. It turns out that Georgiy and Ivan, i.e. Romulus and Remus, were the descendants of the Royal dynasty which emerged on the shores of Volga River after the fall of Troy and who moved the metropolis of the Empire to Russia-Horde. We would like to repeat that Aeneas journey to Russia was not accidental. His royal ancestors originated in Russia – DARDAN, i.e. Horde-Don; then JASIUS (or IASIUS) i.e.Jesus Christ; and ASSARACUS, i.e. Russian.