A.T.Fomenko , G.V.Nosovskiy
HOW IT WAS IN REALITY

Chapter 4.
THE EPOCH OF THE XIV CENTURY

1. THE CREATION OF THE RUSSIAN STATE = RUSSIA-HORDE UNDER THE MILITARY, NAMELY THE HORDIAN RULE

We will reiterate some elements of our reconstruction. At the end of the XIII – beginning of the XIV cc. a final unification of the diverse peoples of Russia, instigated by Aeneas-Ryurik, took place. Partly peacefully, partly through military means, the people of Povolzhye (Volga Region) and Severnoye Prichernomorye (The Northern Black Sea Area) merged into a centralized state under the military = Hordian rule. It was fully realised under the Grand prince – khan, Khagan (Kagan) Georgii Danilovich, aka Genghis Khan or Gurkhan in the foreign sources. A vast and powerful state falls under his power.

At the head of the state was a czar, an 'autocrat', who had absolute power. Vladimir and Suzdal Rus' (Russia) was the capital region, which at that time was called VELIKII NOVGOROD (Great Novgorod). It has entered the chronicles under this name. Yaroslavl became the centre of the administrative governance. It was reflected in the chronicles as 'Yaroslavovo Dvorishe (Yaroslav's Court) of Velikii Novgorod'. The fortified czarist headquarters were situated at different times in different cities: in Rostov Velikii, in Kostroma, in Vladimir, in Suzdal (= 'ancient' Suzy) and in some other centres of Vladimir and Suzdal Rus' (Russia).

In the chronicles the term LORD NOVGOROD THE GREAT (Gospodin Velikiy Novgorod) defined not just one particular city, Yaroslavl, for example, but an entire region, which was a property bestowed upon the Grand-Prince in the epoch which spanned Ivan Kalita=Khalif to Ivan III. This was a capital district up until the XVI century when the capital was transferred to Moscow.

Lord Novgorod the Great, the Grand-Prince capital region comprised of the following cities: Yaroslavl, Rostov, Kostroma, Pereyaslavl, Mologa, Vladimir and Suzdal [362], v.4; v.5, column 21.

It is known that the Scandinavian sources called Velikiy Novgorod a LAND OF CITIES [523], p.47. It means that they clearly considered it to be a COMMUNITY OF THE CITIES [5v2], ch.9. The Russian sources also tell us about the INDEPENDENT ENDS OF NOVGOROD, which occasionally would even fight against each other. These ENDS (KONTSI – boroughs) were independent of each other, and each of them had its own chief and its own seal. Each 'konets' ('end') owned particular regions in the Novgorodian land. The entire Novgorodian land was divided between them. Besides, SEVERAL SEALS FROM EACH END (KONETS) were SIMULTANEOUSLY attached to the Novgorodian state charter. For example, one of the oldest Novgorodian charters has EIGHT such seals [5v2]. When deciding on the matters of great importance the representatives of the ENDS would meet at one of the public assemblies called Veche (the highest legislature and judicial authority in the Republic of Novgorod –Tr.). There were at least two Veche: one – 'at Yaroslav's Court' as they wrote in the charters, and the other - 'Sofiiskoye veche' (which took place in front of the Cathedral of Holy Wisdom). The Veche 'AT YAROSLAV'S COURT' was considered to be the main one. Presumably, the representatives of the cities from the entire Grand-Princedom would gather in Yaroslavl and from there would give out the charters in the name of the 'Lord Novgorod the Great' at the Yaroslav's Court.

Based on the new empirical/statistical dating techniques, we have discovered 'authentication' of the ancient and mediaeval dynasties. A certain chain emerges, 'at the head' of which, i.e. the closest to us in time, happens to be a dynasty of the Russian–Hordian czars-khans of the years 1273-1600. All the rest of the main ancient dynasties turn out to be its phantom reflections, dated back into the past [1v], [2v]. It means that the main ancient and mediaeval kingdoms reflected in the ancient chronicles to some extent are the descriptions generally speaking of the same Empire of the XIV-XVI cc.

In particular all three famous 'ancient' Roman Empires: the Royal Rome of Titus Livy (or the First Roman Empire) allegedly of the VIII-VI cc. BC, then the Second Roman Empire allegedly of the I-III cc., then the Third Roman Empire allegedly of the III-VI cc ., then the mediaeval Holy Roman Empire allegedly of the X-XIII cc. – they are all the phantom reflections of the same Habsburg Empire = of the Novgorodians of the XIV-XVII cc., i.e. the reflection of the Great Empire. In other words, the 'ancient' Royal Rome founded by Romulus, perceived as the City and as the Kingdom – is the 'Mongolian' Empire [1v], [2v],[7v1].

The famous 'ancient' historian Titus Livy, the author of the definitive 'Books from the foundation of the city' was in fact a chronicler of the 'Mongolian' Empire of the XIII-XVI cc. Most likely he lived in Western Europe in the XVI-XVII cc. As it happens in many places in his book Titus Livy displays a view point which today is called Judaic. However, at the same time, he most likely is Christian. But not in the modern sense of this word, but in the sense of the epoch of the XV-XVII cc.

 

2. THE INVASION OF THE 'MONGOLS' INTO WESTERN AND SOUTHERN EUROPE, ASIA AND AFRICA.
THE RISE OF THE HORDIAN EMPIRE.

By the end of the first half of the XIV century the restoration of the Empire commences under the rule of Ivan Danilovich Kalita = Caliph = Khalif. The Russian cavalry = 'Mongolian' hordes invade Europe, Africa and India, fig.22 in a wide reaching offensive. The 'Mongol' = great invasion begins.

As a result a considerable part of Eurasia was colonized. The rest were forced to accept – to varying degrees – their vassal dependency from Russia-Horde, possibly only in the form of paying the tax.

The conquests of the Prince Georgiy Danilovich (Genghis Khan) followed by his brother Ivan Danilovich Kalita (Batu-Khan) resulted in the rise in the first half of the XIV century of the Great = 'Mongol' Empire with its centre in Vladimir and Suzdal Russia.

A new political force began its supreme reign in the historical arena. You can call it the Russian-Horde Empire as its centre was situated in Vladimir and Suzdal Russia = Velikiy Novgorod, and its military forces were called the Horde = Rat' (Russian for 'army') = Rodom (Russian for 'by birth'). The Empire was also called Israel.

In the XIV-XVI cc. the Russian-Horde Empire spread its power over Eurasia, Northern Africa and a significant part of America. Generally it was not a conquest, but a colonization, as the local population, which consisted of separate small ethnic groups, could not raise any significant military resistance to the Imperial army = Cossacks = Israelites. The new large colonies emerged on the colonized lands with the advent of the 'Mongolian' administration. Among them were the regions of Western Europe, the Great Mogul in India, the 'Mongolian' state in China, samurais (i.e. Samarians - natives of Samaria), Samarians (from Samara), natives of Samara) in Japan, Mamelukes in Egypt, the Maya and Inca state in America, fig.23 [7v1],ch.1.

In the Russian sources the world Empire was called ALL RUS' (ALL RUSSIA) or the Russian Kingdom. In the foreign sources - the 'Mongol', i.e. the 'Great' Empire. According to S.Herberstein the word RUSSIA was then understood as 'Diaspora', 'proliferation' and the name 'ALL RUS' (ALL RUSSIA) meant simply 'all the proliferation' [161], p.58.

In the Western European sources Russia-Horde of the XIV-XVI cc. was reflected as the Habsburg Empire of the XIV-XVI cc. In the name Habsburg the second part - BURG – means CITY. The first part is possibly a Latinized reading of a Slavonic word HAB (pronounced NAV) written in Cyrillic. It means NEW. In Latin H is spelled like a Slavonic N = H. And Latin B = Slavonic V=B. In this case HABSBURG is simply NEW CITY, NOVGOROD. Such a name carried a reminiscence of the capital of Russia-Horde – Velikiy Novgorod = Yaroslavl. Incidentally the name of the capital of the later Habsburgs of the XVII-XVIII cc. itself – VIENNA in Austria, possibly originates from the Russian word VENETS meaning wreath or crown, i.e. CROWNED, or ROYAL city. Further down the line the Hordian origin of the Habsburgs was forgotten. After the split of the Empire in the XVI-XVII cc. the Western Europeans started composing their 'correct history' anew, where there was no longer a place for Russia-Horde. The name VIENNA is close to VENETI, i.e the name of Slavic people, See a book by Orbini [617] and [5v].

About the Czarist Headquarters. In the Great Empire starting with Ryurik-Aeneas and ending with the middle of the XVI century the Imperial headquarters was always separate from the capital. The capital remained an open city where there were situated the state offices and embassies, and international trade took place. The Imperial headquarters was a completely closed city. No outsiders were admitted. Starting with Ryurik-Aeneas and up to the middle of the XVI century the city of Yaroslavl on Volga (the chronicles' Velikiy Novgorod) was the Russian capital. The Imperial headquarters changed its location several times. At first it was situated in Rostov Velikiy (Rostov the Great), then later in Vladimir, Suzdal, Aleksandrova Sloboda, etc. Something similar was taking place in Italy, when the Russian (Etruscan) invaders came there. They turned Florence into the capital of Italy. The Imperial headquarters was established by them in a different place – in the future Italian Rome.

3. THE EMPERORS OF THE GREAT EMPIRE = THE RUSSIAN CZARS-KHANS OF THE XIV CENTURY.

Little is known about the history of the czars-khans of the Great Empire up until the XIV century. On the whole the XIII century is a dark and deep antiquity. Only since the 'Mongol' conquest the picture becomes clearer. With the emergence of a vast Empire the chronicle writing became more orderly and detailed. There appeared the imperial libraries which survived until the XVI century. After the schism of the Empire in the XVII century they were destroyed by the rebel reformists. Nevertheless a large amount of information has survived, although it is quite distorted and edited. The great conquest, which led to the emergence of the Horde Empire, was started by Georgiy Danilovich Moskovskii (Grand Prince of Moscow), aka Genghis Khan.

&& GEORGIY = YURY (YURIY)= GIURGII DANILOVICH 'MOSKOVSKII' (OF MOSCOW) = GENGHIS KHAN.

He reigned in 1319-1325. Aka Holy Georgiy Pobedonosets (St.George the Victorious). In the Western European chronicles he was reflected as Habsburg, i.e. Novgorodets meaning 'of Novgorod' (of the New City), 'Henry VII of Luxembourg' 1309-1314 according to [76] or 1308-1313 according to [304], v.2, p.406. We all know of the Tomb of Henry VII which in present day is situated in Pisa. It is very recent; it is a part of the 'material proof' specially created in the XVIII-XIX cc. to substantiate the Scaligerian history. However, there still remains the identity traces between 'Henry VII' and Georgiy of Moscow on the tomb-newly made. Oskar Jäger informs us that 'the inscription... says... that the emperor's remains are preserved in the tomb incorruptible' [304], v.2, p.411. The Incoraptable remains or relics are a sign of holiness. Indeed, Georgiy Pobedonosets (George the Victorious) is consecrated a saint. So into the West-European 'Henry's tomb' the relics of some other saint were placed. But of course they were not George's.

According to our results czar-khan Georgiy Danilovich, like the other khans of the Great Empire, was buried in the old imperial cemetery in Egypt [5v2], ch.7:5.

Georgiy united the Russian lands under the rule of the 'Lord Novgorod the Great', as in that time Vladimir and Suzdal Russia was called. He started the great conquest the aim of which was subjecting the entire known world under the rule of the Great princes-khans of Vladimir and Suzdal.

At first the capital was situated in Rostov Velikii (Rostov the Great). Georgiy founded a new capital for the Grand Princes – the city of Vladimir, which means: one who rules the world, the capital of the world. He also founded Nizhny Novgorod. He was killed at an early age. The circumstances of his death are not clear. According to some reports he was murdered by the conspirators.

He was consecrated a saint and canonised under several names several times: 1) as Holy Great-Martyr George (April 23, O.S); 2) as the Martyr Holy Blessed Grand Prince Georgy Vsevolodovich the miracle worker of Vladimir is commemorated on February 17 (February 4, O.S.)

Due to the mistakes of the recent chroniclers, the Grand Prince-Khan Georgiy is described in the Russian and 'Mongolian' history (which is one and the same thing) several times under different names. Specifying them we indicate the century into which the historians erroneously dated the original. So:

a) Ryurik – the founder of the Russian dynasty of Grand Princes, erroneously dated to the IX century. The figure of Ryurik is multi-layered. His first layer is the Trojan King, 'variag' Aeneas ('Varangian') who came to Rus' in the XIII century. b) Mstislav Vladimirovich 'The Brave', erroneously was dated to the XI century; c) Georgiy Vsevolodovich, erroneously dated to the XIII century; d) Genghis Khan, or in the other more correct variant of this name, Caesar-Khan, erroneously dated to the XIII century.

So in 1318 Georgiy Danilovich = Genghis Khan begins the conquest. The details of the colonization - unification are not known well. The historians extended this period over several decades. In reality it is shorter. We learned it at school as 'the beginning of Tatar-Mongol invasion from the EAST'. For the Western-Russian chroniclers that was what did happen. The ancient Ukrainian or Polish chronicles laid the foundation of some of the Russian chronicles which came down to us. It is not a coincidence that the Radzivilovskaya letopis (Radzivilovsky chronicle) was found in Kenigsberg.

The Old Russian coat of arms was Georgiy Pobedonosets (George the Victorious). It is not surprising. Georgiy = Genghis Khan was in fact the founder of the Russian 'Mongol' Empire.

The Radzivilovskaya letopis (Radzivilovsky chronicle) begins the story of the 'epoch of Ryurik from the Great strife, the war between the different regions of the state. This is the strife of the late XIII - early XIV cc. in Russia, already familiar to us. It concludes with the unification under the rule of the 'house of Kalita', Genghis Khan = Yuriy = Ryurik (king Aeneas). This is the result of the famous plea 'Come and reign and have authority over us!'. The chronicle rightfully informs us of the emergence of a new state.

The name Georgiy = Giurgii or Yuriy is the name of the famous annalistic Ryurik. Ryurik is just a different form of an Old Russian name Giurgii, i.e. Georgiy = Yuriy. There is no separate name Ryurik in Russia today. It does not exist in the church calendar either. But not because this famous name is forgotten. It's just it is being used in a different form – Yuriy or Georgiy. The names Yuriy or Georgiy are considered to be different names only in present day. In the Old Russian language they were the same.

So the annalistic 'The Calling On the Princes (Varangians)' is the unification of Russia by Yuriy = Genghis Khan, started by the king Aeneas – Noah - Ryurik.

&& IVAN DANILOVICH KALITA = KHALIF = BATU KHAN

Ivan Danilovich Kalita 1328-1340 according to [362]. Two versions of the beginning of his reign are indicated in [145], which are year 1322 or year 1328. The beginning of the Prince's reign is indicated for the second time under the year 1328.

In the Western European sources Ivan Kalita = Khalif was reflected as Habsburg 'Ludwig der Bayer' 1314-1347 according to [76] or 1313-1347 according to [304], v.2, p.414. 'Ludwig der Bayer' is a reflection of the following three Russian czars-khans: Ivan I Danilovich Kalita 1328-1340 according to [362] + his son Simeon Gordyi (Simeon the Proud) 1340-1353 + his son Ivan II Krotkii Krasnyi (Ivan II the Meek, the Fair of Moscow) 1353-1359 according to [36], [362].

Ivan Kalita continued uniting the lands under the rule of the Lord Novgorod the Great, which was started by his brother Georgiy = Genghis Khan. During his time the 'Mongol' conquest spread far to the West and to the South. He finally has subjected the Western Europe, in the XIV century he FOUNDED THE VATICAN AND ROME IN ITALY as a centre of the social and religious power in the West. The word VATICAN itself probably originated from the name of khan Batu. To be exact VATI-KAN is BATU KHAN or BATYA KHAN. In the Western sources he is reflected as 'Pope' Innocent III. He simultaneously was both a social and a spiritual ruler = khalif. He founded the institution of the Popes in Italy [4v2], ch.2:22.

Kalita=Khalif expanded the city of Yaroslavl or, as they used to call it, 'Yaroslavov Dvorishe of Velikiy Novgorod (Yaroslav's Court of Novgorod the Great) at the intersection of the Volga and Northern Dvina rivers' trade routes.

Ivan Kalita was the czar and the pontiff simultaneously. In the West his memory lived on long after him, which in time became the stuff of myth and legend: of an 'ancient' god or king Cron, of a mediaeval king-priest John the Presbyter, etc. [4v].

He died in the West, probably in Italy. He left behind two branches of government: the czarist in Russia and the pope's in Italy, which was also claiming the social power. These two branches were locked in battle long after his death.

Due to the mistakes of the recent chronologists, the Grand Prince-Khan Ivan Kalita is described in World History several times under various names: a) Cronus, a legendary king of Assyria. The Chronographia by John Malalas tells us about it. In various 'ancient' Greek myths Cronos is a progenitor of the Olympian gods. b) Yaroslav Vsevolodovich, was erroneously dated to the XIII century. c) Batu Khan, was erroneously dated to the XIII century.

He died of a sudden illness. It is quite possible that he was poisoned. He was buried, most likely, in Egypt [4v2], ch.2:22.

&& SIMEON GORDYI (SIMEON THE PROUD), AKA ALEKSANDR NEVSKY.

Simeon Gordyi 1340-1353 according to [362], [36], [145], aka Aleksandr Nevsky. In the Western European sources he was reflected as the Habsburg 'Ludwig der Bayer'. i.e. – the 'Novgorodians Barbaric People'. Also the biography of 'Ludwig der Bayer' was contributed by the Grand Prince-Khan Simeon  the Proud along with Ivan Kalita.

He reigned over the Empire from Veliky Novgorod. In Yaroslavl he established a centre of the international trade between the East and the West. He created a court of governors of Veliky Novgorod as a centre of the administrative control of the Empire. Under his rule and his successors' rule such remote regions as Egypt and China were assimilated into the Great Empire [5v].

On account of mistakes made by the recent chroniclers, the Grand Prince-Khan Simeon the Proud is described in World history a number of times under various names: a) Aleksandr Yaroslavich Nevsky, erroneously was dated to the XIII century; b) Menke Khan, erroneously dated to the XIII century; c) Berke or Birkai Khan, erroneously dated to the XIII century; d) Khan Chanikbek.

&& IVAN THE MEEK (THE FAIR).

Ivan the Meek (the Fair) 1353-1359 according to [36], [362] or 1354-1359 according to [145]. In Western European sources he was reflected as the very same 'Habsburg (Habsburger) Ludwig der Bayer'. I.e. the 'Novgorodians Barbaric People'. He ruled the Empire from Veliky Novgorod and continued to build the Empire: transport routs, the monetary system, the international trade between the East and the West in Yaroslavl. After his death his son, Dmitry Ivanovich, who was still a minor, remained to become the future Donskoi.

Ivan the Meek is also known in history under the name of Yaroslav Tverskoi, who erroneously was dated to the XIII century.

The distant travels became possible only with the appearance of the vast Empire and its safeguarded caravan trails. Before then nothing of the kind existed. Travelling over the long distances was extremely dangerous. Even at such close proximity to one's home, one could find oneself in an alien environment with a different language and customs, falling easy prey to highwaymen or rogues. Only a powerful Empire was able to provide relatively secure transport routes, along which immediately set forth not only the military forces and merchants, but travellers too.

&& DMITRY OF SUZDAL.

Dmitry of Suzdal 1359-1363 according to [362], or 1360-1362 according to [36], [145]. In the Western European chronicles he was reflected as 'Karol IV Habsburg' 1347-1378 according to [76]. We would like to point out that "Karol IV" means just the 'Fourth King'. He is the reflection of a 'sum' of the following two Russian czars-khans: Dmitry of Suzdal and Dmitry Ivanovich Donskoi 1363-1389.

Very little is known of Dmitry of Suzdal. After the death of Ivan Ivanovich the Fair an uprising begins within the state and a struggle for power with Prince Dmitry, the minor, the future 'Donskoi'. Dmitry of Suzdal is also known in history under the name of Vassily of Kostroma and erroneously dated to the XIII century.

&& DMITRY DONSKOI.

Dmitry Ivanovich Donskoi 1363-1389 according to [362] or 1362-1389 according to [36], [145]. In the Western European chronicles he is reflected as 'Karol IV Habsburg'. Some facts of Dmitry Donskoi's biography also found their way into the history of Habsburg Venceslav following Karol IV.

Dmitry Donskoi is also known in history under the names of a) Svyatoslav Igorevich, erroneously dated to the X century; b) Dmitry of Pereyaslavl, erroneously dated to the XIII century; c) Tokhta Khan, erroneously dated to the XIII century; d) Khan Tokhtamysh; e) the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great, erroneously dated to the IV century.

At the end of the XIV century the Great Strife begins in Russia-Horde. In 1380 a bloody religious battle takes place between the army of Dmitry Donskoi and Velyaminov-Mamai the temnik (Russian for the rank of army commander, and translates as "leader of thousands"). The Battle of Kulikovo is considered to be major in the history of mediaeval Russia. According to our results, the battle took place in the territory of modern Moscow, where the Yauza River enters the Moscow River [4v1], ch.6. At that time there was no city of Moscow there. The place of the battle up until now is called in Moscow the KULISHKI FIELD, i.e. the Kulikovo field. The mass burials of the soldiers fallen in the Battle of Kulikovo, survive in Moscow in the Old Simonov Monastery and in the Andronikov Monastery. Today the historians are either reluctant to speak of them or are simply ignorant about them.

Dmitriy Donskoi laid down the foundation of the city of Moscow in the place of the Battle of Kulikovo. The capital, the czarist headquarters of Dmitriy Donskoi was the city of Kostroma.

In Western European sources the battle is reflected as a famous battle allegedly of the year 1386 near the Lucerne city of Sempach [304], v.2, p.446. As we have shown in [] the Battle of Kulikovo also forms the backbone to the main plot of the great 'ancient' Indian epic Sanskrit poem 'Mahabharata'. Here it is described as a famous battle in the field of the Kurus (Kurukshetra). It is also reflected in Titus Livy's 'The History of Rome' and in the Old Testament (in particular, as the battle between David and Goliath). The Battle of Kulikovo's significant role can be explained by the fact that it was a religious battle for the adoption of the Apostles' Christianity as an official religion over the entire 'Mongol' Empire. The very same battle is described on the pages of the 'ancient' sources as a battle of the Emperor Constantine with Maxentius [] Thus Dmitriy Donskoi=Constantine the Great has baptised all of the Horde Empire by the end of the XIV century.

It turns out that the 'ancient' Roman sources described in detail the situation preceding the Battle of Kulikovo of 1380. The opposition between the former HEREDITARY, ROYAL Christianity and PEOPLE'S APOSTLES' Christianity becomes acute. A religious war approaches. Dmitriy Donskoi stands at the head of the Apostles' Christians, and Khan Mamai = Ivan Velyaminov leads the supporters of the Royal Christianity. The religious antagonism discrepancies become insuperable. The dispute escalates towards military conflict. At stake – which religion will be adopted as the state religion in this vast Empire? It becomes clear that reconciliation is impossible. No one is willing to yield.

Following the adoption of the Apostles' Christianity by the Empire the defeated Royal Christianity was declared by the victors as 'foul paganism'. At that time such a stigma reflected irreconcilable differences between the two branches of the old Christianity. Later this conflict subsided. The Apostles' Christianity prevailed, and the Hereditary Christianity was consigned to history. But the pernicious stigma on the pages of the original sources remained. Subsequent historians naively interpreted it all too literally. They concluded that 'the foul pagans' didn't believe in Christ at all. The historians were mistaken. The 'pagans' did believe, but in a different way. They called Him not only Christ, but also the other names, which are forgotten today. For example: Hors, Thor, Kolyada, Rod, Zeus, Dionysus, Osiris, Theseus, Heracles, etc.

 

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