History: fiction or science?

A. T. Fomenko

Chronology 1

Introducing the problem. A criticism of the Scaligerian chronology.

Dating methods as offered by mathematical statistics. Eclipses and zodiacs.

Delamere Publishing

Translated from Russian by Michael Jagger. Cover by Polina Zinoviev. Project management by Franck Tamdhu

(It is published with the permission of the publisher)
history.mithec.com / evilempireblog.com

History:Fiction or Science? Chronology vol.I  Anatoly T.Fomenko


Overview of the seven volumes

About the Author

Also by Analoly T. Fomenko

A Global Falsification of History. Foreword by Alexander Zinoviev

Foreword by A. Shiryaev

Publisher's Note

Preface by A. T. Fomenko

History of the New Chronology. By A. T. Fomenko and G. V. Nosovskiy

Publisher's Advice

Chapter 1 The problems of historical chronology

1. Roman chronology as the foundation of European chronology

2. Scaliger, Petavius, and other clerical chronologers. The creation of contemporary chronology of the ancient times in the XVI-XVII century a.d.


3. The veracity of the Scaliger-Petavius chronology was questioned as early as the XVI century .

3.1.Who criticized Scaliger's chronology and where

3.1.1. De Arcilla, Robert Baldauf, Jean Hardouin, Edwin Johnson, Wilhelm Kammeyer

3.1.2. Sir Isaac Newton

3.1.3. Nikolai Alexandrovich Morozov

3.1.4. Recent publications of German scientists containing criticisms of Scaliger's chronology

3.2. The questionnable veracity of the Roman chronology and history. The hypercritical school of the XIX century

4. The problems in establishing a correct chronology of "ancient" Egypt

5. The problem in dating the "ancient" sources.Tacitus and Poggio. Cicero and Barzizza. Vitruvius and Alberti

6. Timekeeping in the Middle Ages. Historians discuss the "chaos reigning in the mediaeval datings." Peculiar mediaeval anachronisms

7. The chronology and the dating of Biblical texts

8. Difficulties and contradictions arising from the reading of old texts

8.1. How does one read a text written in consonants exclusively? The vocalization problem

8.2. The sounds "R" and "L" were often confused in the Middle Ages

9. Problems in the Scaligerian geography of Biblical events

9.1. Archaeology and the Old Testament

9.2. Archaeology and the New Testament

10. Ancient historical events: geographic localization issues

10.1. The locations of Troy and Babylon

10.2. The geography of Herodotus is at odds with the Scaligerian version

10.3. The inverted maps of the Middle Ages

11. A modern analysis of Biblical geography

12. The mysterious Renaissance epoch as a product of the Scaligerian chronology

13. The foundations of archaeological methods have been based on the Scaligerian chronology from the very beginning.

13.1. The ambiguity of archaeological datings and their dependence on the existing chronology

13.2. The excavations of Pompeii. The dating of this town's destruction.

13.3. The alleged acceleration of the destruction of the "ancient"monuments .

13.4. When did the construction of the Cologne Cathedral really begin?

13.5. Archaeological methods are most often based on Scaliger's datings

13.6. One of the numerous problems of the Scaligerian history – the problem of bronze manufacture before the discovery of tin.

14. The problems and deficiencies of dendrochronology and several other dating methods

14.1. The consequent scale of dendrochronological datings does not extend further back in time than the X century a.d.

14.2. Sedimentary layer datings. The methods of radium-uranium and radium-actinium analysis.

15. Are radiocarbon datings to be trusted?

15.1. The radiocarbon datings of ancient, mediaeval, and modern specimens are scattered chaotically

15.1.1. Libby's initial idea. The first failures

15.1.2. A criticism of the application of the radiocarbon method to historical specimens

15.2. The dating of the Shroud of Turin

15.3 Modern radiocarbon analysis of Egyptian artefacts demonstrates serious contradictions

16. Critical analysis of the hypotheses on which the radiocarbon method is based. By A. S. Mishchenko

16.1. W. F. Libby's initial idea

16.2. Physical basics of the radiocarbon method

16.3. The hypotheses that the radiocarbon method is based upon

16.4. The moment of the object's departure from the exchange reservoir

16.5. Radiocarbon content variations in the exchange reservoir

16.6. Variations in radiocarbon content of living bodies

17. Summary

18. Numismatic dating


Chapter 2 Astronomical datings

1. The strange leap of parameter D" in the Theory of Lunar Motion

2. Are the "ancient" and mediaeval eclipses dated correctly?

2.1. Some astronomical data

2.2. The discovery of an interesting effect: an unprejudiced astronomical dating shifts the dates of the "ancient" eclipses to the Middle Ages 96

2.3. Three eclipses described by the "ancient" Thucydides

2.4. The eclipses described by the "ancient" Titus Livy

3. Transferring the dates of the "ancient" eclipses forward in time into the Middle Ages eliminates the enigmatic behaviour of the parameter D" 105

4. Astronomy moves the "ancient" horoscopes into the Middle Ages

4.1. The mediaeval astronomy

4.2. The method of unprejudiced astronomical dating.

4.3. Many "ancient astronomical observations"may have been theoretically calculated by late mediaeval astronomers and then included into the "ancient" chronicles as "real observations"

4.4.Which astronomical "observations of the ancients" could have been a result of late mediaeval theoretic calculations?

5. A brief account of several examples of Egyptian Zodiacs.

5.1. Some general observations

5.2. The Dendera Zodiacs.

5.3. The horoscopes of Brugsch and Flinders Petrie

5.4. Finite datings of the Egyptian Zodiacs based on their complete deciphering, as obtained by A. T. Fomenko and G. V. Nosovskiy in 2001

5.5. On the errors of E. S. Goloubtsova and Y. A. Zavenyagin

6. Astronomy in the New Testament

Chapter 3 The new dating of the astronomical horoscope as described in the Apocalypse By A. T. Fomenko and G. V. Nosovskiy

1. The proposed research method

2. General information about the Apocalypse and the time of its creation

3. Ursa Major and the throne

4. The events took place on the Isle of Patmos.

5. The constellations of Cassiopeia and the throne were drawn as Christ sitting on his throne in the Middle Ages

6. The Milky Way.

7. Twenty-four sidereal hours and the constellation of the Northern Crown.

8. Leo, Taurus, Sagittarius, Pegasus .

9. The daily rotation of the Northern Crown.

10. Equine planetary images in mediaeval astronomy

11. Jupiter is in Sagittarius

12. Mars is beneath Perseus in either Gemini or Taurus

13. Mercury is in Libra.

14. Saturn is in Scorpio

15. The Sun is in Virgo with the Moon underneath the feet of the latter 16. Venus is in Leo

17. The astronomical dating of the Apocalypse by the horoscope it contains.

18. Our reconstruction of the initial content of the Apocalypse


Chapter 4 Astronomy in the Old Testament

1.Mediaeval astronomy in the Old Testament Book of Ezekiel

1.1. The title of the book

1.2. The description of the Milky Way and the Ophiuchus constellation

1.3. The Biblical description of the astronomical sectors, or "wings," on the celestial sphere

1.4. The constellations of Leo, Taurus and Aquila

1.5. The Biblical description of the mediaeval "wheels," or planetary orbits

1.6. Parallels with the astronomical symbolism of the Apocalypse

1.7. Biblical cherubim, chariots, and mediaeval planetary orbital wheels

1.8. The Biblical description of mediaeval cosmology as a celestial temple

2. The Biblical prophecy of Zechariah and the date of its creation.

3. The Biblical prophecy of Jeremiah and the date of its creation

4. The Biblical prophecy of Isaiah and the date of its creation

5. The Biblical prophecy of Daniel and the date of its creation


Chapter 5 The methods of dating the ancient events offered by mathematical statistics

1. The local maxima method

1.1. The historical text volume function

1.2. The maxima correlation principle

1.3. Statistical model

1.4. Experimental test of the maxima correlation principle. Examples of dependent and independent historical texts

1.5. Method of dating the historical events

2. Volume functions of historical texts and the amplitude correlation principle By A. T. Fomenko and S. T. Rachev

2.1. Dependent and independent chronicles. Volume function maxima correlation

2.2. Rich and poor chronicles and chronicle zones

2.3. Significant and insignificant zeroes of volume functions

2.4. The information respect principle

2.5. The amplitude correlation principle of volume graphs in the poor zones of chronicles

2.6. Description of statistical model and formalization

2.7. The hypothesis about the increase of the "form" parameter of a chronicle in the course of time

2.8. The list and characteristics of the Russian chronicles we investigated

2.9. The final table of the numeric experiment

2.10. Interesting consequences of the numeric experiment. The confirmation of the statistical model

2.11. Comparison of a priori dependent Russian chronicles

2.12. Comparison of a priori independent Russian chronicles

2.13. Growth of form parameter in the course of time for the Russian chronicles after the XIII century

2.14. Growth of the average form parameter over the course of time for groups of Russian chronicles of the XIII-XVI century

2.15. Growth of the average parameter of form over the course of time for the groups of Russian chronicles of the alleged IX-XIII century.

2.16. Chronological shift by 300 or 400 years in Russian history.

2.17. Conclusions

3. The maxima correlation principle on the material of the sources pertinent to the epoch of Strife in the History of Russia (1584-1619) By A. T. Fomenko, N. S. Kellin and L. E. Morozova

4. The method for the recognition and dating of the dynasties of rulers. The small dynastic distortions principle

4.1. The formulation of the small dynastic distortions principle

4.2. The statistical model

4.3. Refinement of the model and the computation experiment

4.4. Result of the experiment: coefficient c(a, b) positively distinguishes between the dependent and independent dynasties of kings

4.5. The method of dating the royal dynasties and the method detecting the phantom dynastic duplicates.

5. The frequency damping principle. The method of ordering of historical texts in time

6. Application of the method to some concrete historical texts

7. Method of dating of the events

8. The frequencies duplication principle. The duplicate detection method

9. Statistical analysis of the Bible

9.1. Partition of the Bible into 218 "generation Chapters"

9.2. Detection of the previously known duplicates in the Bible with the aid of the frequency dumping principle.

9.3. New, previously unknown duplicates we discovered in the Bible. General scheme of their distribution within the Bible

9.4. A representative example: the new statistical dating of the Apocalypse, which moves from the New Testament into the Old Testament .

10. The method of form-codes. The comparison of two long currents of regal biographies

11. Correct chronological ordering method and dating of ancient geographical maps


Chapter 6 The construction of a global chronological map and the results of applying mathematical procedures of dating to the Scaligerian version of the ancient history


1. Textbook of ancient and mediaeval history in the consensual Scaliger-Petavius datings

2. Mysterious duplicate chronicles inside the "Scaliger-Petavius textbook"

3.Mysterious duplicate regal dynasties inside the "textbook by Scaliger-Petavius" (the end of the section in the following file)

4. Brief tables of some astonishing dynastic parallelisms

5. Conformity of results obtained by different methods

5.1. General assertion

5.2. The agreement of the different methods on the example of the identification of the Biblical Judaic reign with the Holy Roman Empire of allegedly X-XIII century a.d.

6. The general layout of duplicates in "the textbook by Scaliger-Petavius". The discovery of the three basic chronological shifts

7. The Scaligerian textbook of the ancient history glued together four duplicates of the short original chronicle

8. The list of phantom "ancient" events which are phantom duplicates, orreflections of the mediaeval originals

9. Identification of the "ancient" Biblical history with the mediaeval European history

10. Our hypothesis: history as described in surviving chronicles only begins in ca. the X century a.d. We know nothing of the events that took place before the X century a.d

11. Authentic history only begins in XVII century a.d. The history of the XI-XVI century is largely distorted. Many dates of the XI-XVI century require correction

12. The radical distinction of our chronological concept from the version of N. A.Morozov

13. The hypothesis about the cause of the fallacious chronological shifts in the creation of the history of antiquity

13.1. Chronological shift of a thousand years as the consequence of the fallacious dating of Jesus Christ's life

13.2. The letter "X" formerly denoted the name of Christ, but was later proclaimed to stand for the figure of ten. The letter "I" formerly denoted the name of Jesus, but was later proclaimed to be the indication of one thousand

13.3. Until the XVIII century, the Latin letters "I" or "J" – i.e. the first letters of the name of Jesus – were still used in several European regions to denote "one" in recording of dates

13.4. How the chronological shift by 330 or 360 years could have occured

13.5. What latin letters "M", "D", "C" in Roman dates meant originally, in the Middle Ages

13.5.1. General idea

13.5.2. Example: the date on the tomb of Empress Gisela

13.5.3. Another example: the date on the headstone of Emperor Rudolf Habsburg

13.5.4. Recording of mediaeval dates was not unified everywhere even in the XVIII century

13.5.5. Some datings of printed books and manuscripts dating from the XV-XVII century will apparently have to be moved forwards in time by at least fifty more years

13.6. The foundation date of Rome of Italy

13.7. A later confusion of foundation dates of the two Romes, on the Bosporus and in Italy

13.8. Scaliger and the Council of Trent. Creation of the Scaligerian chronology of antiquity in the XVI-XVII century

13.9. Two phantom "ancient" reflections of Dionysius Petavius, a mediaeval chronologist of the XVII century

14. A stratified structure of the Scaligerian textbook of ancient history

15. The coordination of a new astronomical dating with a dynastic parallel

16. A strange lapse in the Scaligerian chronology near "the beginning of the new era"


Chapter 7 "Dark Ages" in mediaeval history

1. The mysterious Renaissance of the "Classical Age" in mediaeval Rome

1.1. The lugubrious "Dark Ages" in Europe that presumably succeeded the beauteous "Classical Age"

1.2. Parallels between "antiquity" and the Middle Ages that are known to historians, but misinterpreted by them

1.3. Mediaeval Roman legislators convene in the presumably destroyed "ancient" Capitol

1.4. The real date when the famous "ancient" statue of Marcus Aurelius was manufactured

1.5. Could the "ancient" Emperor Vitellius have posed for the mediaeval artist Tintoretto?

1.6. The amount of time required for the manufacture of one sheet of parchment

1.7. The "ancient" Roman Emperor Augustus had been Christian, since he wore a mediaeval crown with a Christian cross

2. The "ancient" historian Tacitus and the well-known Renaissance writer Poggio Bracciolini

3. The mediaeval Western European Christian cult and the "ancient" pagan Bacchic celebrations

4. Petrarch (= Plutarch?) and the "Renaissance of antiquity"

4.1. How Petrarch created the legend of the glory of Italian Rome out of nothing

4.2. Petrarch's private correspondence with people considered "ancient characters" nowadays

5. "Ancient" Greece and mediaeval Greece of the XIII-XVI century

5.1. The history of the mediaeval Athens is supposed to be obscured by darkness up until the XVI century

5.2. Greece and the Crusades

5.3. The history of Greek and Athenian archaeology is relatively short

5.4. The tendentious distortion of the image of mediaeval Athens in the "restoration works" of the XIX-XX century

6. Strange parallels in the Scaligerian history of religions

6.1. Mediaeval Christianity and its reflection in the Scaligerian "pagan antiquity"

6.2. Mediaeval Christianity and "ancient"Mithraism

6.3. References to Jesus Christ contained in "ancient" Egyptian artefacts (the end of the section in the following file)

6.4. Researchers of the ancient religions commenting on the strange similarities between the cults of "antiquity" and those of the Middle Ages

6.5. Moses, Aaron and their sister Virgin Mary on the pages of the Koran

6.6. The XI century as the apparent epoch of St. Mark's lifetime. The history of St. Mark's Cathedral in Venice

7. The "ancient" Egypt and the Middle Ages

7.1. The odd graph of demotic text datings

7.2. The enigmatic "revival periods" in the history of "ancient" Egypt

7.3. The ancient Hittites and the mediaeval Goths

8. Problems inherent in the Scaligerian chronology of India

9.Was the artificial elongation of ancient history deliberate?



2.1. (to Chapter 2) Grammatical analysis of an eclipse description in History by Thucydides. By Y. V. Alexeyeva

5.1. (to Chapter 5) Per annum volume distribution in some Russian chronicles.

5.2. (to Chapter 5) Frequency matrix of names and parallels in the Bible By V. P. Fomenko and T. G. Fomenko

6.1. (to Chapter 6) Per annum volume distribution in The History of the City of Rome in the Middle Ages by F. Gregorovius

6.2. (to Chapter 6) Per annum volume distribution in The Roman History from the Foundation of the City by Titus Livy

6.3. (to Chapter 6) Per annum volume distribution in the book by Baronius describing mediaeval Rome

6.4. (to Chapter 6) The "double entry" of the Biblical royal reigns of Israel and Judah

6.5. (to Chapter 6) Armenian history. Emperors of the Holy Roman Empire of the alleged X-XIII century a.d., a.k.a. the Kings of Judah, a.k.a. the mediaeval Armenian Catholicoses

1. Three phantom reflections of the same mediaeval dynasty

2. The parallelism between the mediaeval Armenian history and the phantom Roman Empire according to Scaliger

6.6. (to Chapter 6) The identification of the "ancient" Kingdom of Judah with the Holy Roman Empire of the alleged X-XIII century a.d. The correlation between reign durations and biographical volumes

The complete bibliography to the seven volumes

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