A. T. Fomenko
Russia = Horde. Ottomans = Atamans. Europe. China. Japan. The Etruscans. Egypt. Scandinavia.
“[Historical] revisionism only means bringing
history into accord with facts.”
Harry Elmer Barnes
“We should by no means be surprised that the fame of the Slavs isn’t as great nowadays as it used to be. Had there been as many learned men and writers of books among the Slavs as there were fine warriorsand makers of weapons, their glory would be unrivalled by any other nation. As for the fact that many other nations, greatly inferior in the days of yore, exalt their glory to the heavens today, it is only explained by the labours of their scientists.”
|Fomenko , Anatoly Timofeevich ( b. 1945 ). Full Member (Academician) of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Full Member of the Russian Academy of Natu ral Sciences, Full Member of the Interna- tional Higher Education Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Physics and Mathematics, Professor, Head of the Mos cow State University Section of Mathematics of the De partment of Mathematics and Mechanics. Solved Plateau’s Problem from the theory of minimal spectral surfaces. Author of the theory of invariants and topological clas- sification of integrable Ham il tonian dynamic systems. Laureate of the 1996 Na tional Pre mium of the Russian Federation (in Math ematics) for a cycle of works on the Hamil to nian dynamical systems and manifolds’ invariants theory. Author of 200 scientific publications, 28 monographs and textbooks on mathematics, a specialist in geometry and topology, calculus of variations, symplectic topology, Ham il tonian geometry and mechanics, computer geometry. Author of a number of books on the development of new em- pirico-statistical methods and their application to the analysis of historical chronicles as well as the chronology of antiquity and the Middle Ages.
|| Nosovskiy , Gleb Vladimirovich ( b. 1958 ). Candi- date of Physics and Mathematics (MSU, Mos- cow, 1988), specialist in theory of probability, mathematical statistics, theory of probabilistic processes, theory of optimization, stochastic dif- ferential equations, computer modelling of stochastic processes, computer simulation. Worked as researcher of computer geometry in Moscow Space Research Institute, in Moscow Machine Tools and Instruments Institute, in Aizu Univer - sity in Japan. Faculty member of the Depart ment of Mathe matics and Mechanics MSU.
Overview of the seven volumes
About the Author
Also by Analoly T. Fomenko
Also by Gleb V. Nosovskiy
Russia as the centre of the “Mongolian” Empire and its role in mediaeval civilization.
“Peculiar” geographical names on the maps of the XVIII century.
2. The meaning of the word “Mongolia” as used by the authors.
3. The Kuban Tartars as the Kuban Cossacks on the maps of Russia dating from the epoch of Peter the Great.
4. The identity of Persia.
5. Czar-Grad and the multiple Saray cities on the maps dating from the epoch of Peter the Great.
6. The dating of 750 as inscribed upon a Russian naval chart, proves that Empress Yelizaveta Petrovna reigned in the eighth century as counted from the Nativity of Christ, and not the XVIII.
7. On some maps of the XVIII century Russia and Moscovia are written as names that refer to different region.
8. The name of the Russian Empire in the maps of the XVIII century.
9. The former identity of Lithuania.
Russian history as reflected in coins.
1. A general characteristic of Russian coinage.
2. The mysterious period of “coinage absence” in Russian history.
3. Strange absence of golden coinage from the Western European currency of the VIII-XIII century.
4. The origins of the bicephalous eagle as seen on Russian coins.
5. The Tartar and Russian names of the coins circulating among the Russians and the Tartars.
6. Russian and Tartar lettering and the presumably “meaningless inscriptions” on the ancient coins of the Muscovite principality.
7. Bilingual lettering on the Russian coins of the XIV century (Russian and Tartar).
8. The locations of the Tartar mints.
9. Why Great Prince Ivan III put the Hungarian coat of arms on some of his coins.
10. Some general considerations in re numismatic history.
10.1. The similarity or dissimilarity of portraits on various coins.
10.2. The bizarre hoardings of “long-term accumulation”.
10.3. Strange destructions of “ancient” coin hoardings in the Middle Ages.
10.4. Petrarch (also known as the “ancient” Plutarch?) as the first numismatist.
10.5. The “ancient” Golden Fleece and its double from the XV century.
10.6. Mediaeval geographical names were in a state of constant flux.
10.7. Dates as indicated on antique coins.
10.8. Is it possible to date sepulchres by the coins found therein?
Vestiges of the Great = “Mongolian” Empire in documents and on the artefacts found in Europe and Asia.
1. The allegedly illegible inscriptions on mediaeval swords.
2. Italian and German swords with Arabic lettering.
3. The reason why the coronation mantle of the Holy Roman Empire is covered in Arabic lettering exclusively.
4. Church Slavonic inscription in the glagolitsa script in the Catholic Cathedral of St. Vitus in Prague.
5. The peculiar title of Alexei Mikhailovich Romanov, a Russian Czar of the XVII century, as inscribed on his seal.
6. Stone effigies on ancient Russian grave-mounds. The “stone maids of the Polovtsy”.
7. N. A. Morozov’s input into historical science is great; however, his pro-Western theory is erroneous.
8. The Western European countries and their fear of the “Mongols and Tartars”.
9. The Great = “Mongolian” conquest resulted in a westward migration of geographical names.
9.1. The Volga and theBulgarians.
9.2. On the names of the rivers (such as the Don, the Danube, the Dnepr and the Dniester).
9.3. The hussars, the Khazars, the cuirassiers and the Czar-Assyrians (or Sar-Russians).
9.4. The actual identity of the Khazars.
9.5. Slavic names on the map of the Western Europe.
China. The new chronology and conception of Chinese history. Our hypothesis. Introduction.
Astronomical events in the “ancient” Chinese chronicles.
1. The actual astronomical events described in Chinese chronicles.
2. Chinese eclipses.
3. Chinese horoscopes.
4. The “ancient” Chinese 60-year cycle and its origins.
5. When did the Chinese invent the telescope?
1. Suspiciously high comet observation frequency in China.
2. Years of comet observations in China.
3. European comets and their observation dates.
4. A comparison of the Chinese and European comet rosters.
5. Comet Halley.
5.2. The analysis of Planet Halley’s recurrence cycles.
5.2.1. A list of the dates of Comet Halley’s alleged sightings.
5.2.2. What happened to Comet Halley in 1986? The reasons why it shifted to the other
5.2.3. What has been happening to Comet Halley after 1759? The reason why its
recurrence cycles have become irregular.
5.2.4. The provenance of the “Chinese law of periodicity” for Comet Halley.
5.2.5. Dating the introduction of fabricated data into the “observation records” of Comet
5.2.6. On the chaotic character of Comet Halley’s motion.
5.2.7. Suspiciously high frequency of improbable occurrences in Scaligerian history.
statistics for centuries on end?
5.3. In re the comet of Charles V.
5.4. Strange duplicates with the periodicity of 540 years inherent in the Chinese and European
Parallels between the history of Europe and the “ancient” China.
1. A general characteristic of Chinese history.
1.1. The reason why Chinese history is so complex.
1.2. Chinese names of persons and places.
1.2.1. What we come up with when we read Chinese texts and translate Chinese names.
1.2.2. European nations on the Chinese arena.
*1) The “ancient” Chinese Hungarians.
*2) Serbs in “ancient” China.
*3) Goths in “ancient” China.
*4) The Don Cossacks in “ancient” China.
*5) Tartars and the Turks in “ancient” China.
*6) Swedes in “ancient” China.
*7) Macedonians in “ancient” China.
*8) Czechs in “ancient” China.
*9) The identity of the “ancient” Chinese Mongols.
2. The landmarks of the parallelism between the Chinese and the phantom European history before the X century A. D.
3. Parallelism Key Points between the Chinese and Roman-Byzantium History of the X-XIVth centuries.
3.1. Parallels between the Macedonian Conquest in Europe and the Cidanian Conquest in China.
3.2. Baptism in China and Russia in the Xth century.
3.3. Son of Heaven In China in the Eleventh Century AD. Guildebrand as Reflection of Jesus Christ?
3.4. Reflection of the First Crusade In 1099 AD in the "Chinese History".
3.5. Century Shift in the "Chinese History" of the XIth Century.
3.6. Kaifeng as the Capital of the Chinese Empire "R".
3.7. Reflection of the Fourth Crusade in the "Chinese History".
4.. Chinese History of Cidanes, the Kingdom of the Prester John, and the Emergence of the "Mongolian" Empire.
4.1. Copying on Paper of the Prehistory of "Mongolian" Empire to the European and allegedly Eastern "Chinese" History.
4.2. History of the "Mongolian" Empire in the "Chinese" Chronicles.
4.2.1. Roman and Nicean Empires in the "Chinese" Chronicles.
4.2.2. Ilya Dashi.
4.2.4. "Chinese" Imil and Ancient Russian River Ilmer.
4.2.5. "Chinese" City Of Balasagun And Old Russian City Of Balakhna.
4.2.6. "Chinese" Semirechie-Seven Rivers.
4.2.7. Ilya Dashi Becomes A Chief Of A Huge Army In The Semireche.
4.2.8. About the Name China. Why China Is Called China.
4.2.9. Grandiose "Ancient Chinese" Battle In XIIIth Century AD.
4.2.10. The Christianity Of Kara-Kitai (China). The Czar Skifs?
4.2.11. "Chinese" Chronicles, Talking The Same Time, Were Elongated By A Century.
4.2.12. When Were The European Chronicles Transplanted To China?
5. The History Of China After The XVth Century.
5.1. When, Why And Who Built The Great Chinese Wall
5.2. How Many Months It Takes To Go From Chin To Kitai.
5.2.1. Where Kitai Was At The Time Of Afanasy Nikitin
5.2.2. Bilingual Russia of the XVth Century.
5.3. Why Beijing Is Being Called Beijing
5.4. Kitai Or Bogdai?
5.5. Who Are the Buddhists?
5.6. Three "Mongolian" Dynasties in the History of China.
5.7. China is called in European chronicles "Country of Sers." But who are the Sers?
5.8. The epoch of Manjous - the beginning of the reliable history of China.
6. "Mongolian" Manjou Golden (Ch'ing) Dynasty in China
6.1. What Is Known About Manjous in Scaliger History?
6.2. Manjou monumental military construction in China .
6.3. The Golden Empire of Manjous and the Golden Horde.
6.4. Religion Of Manjous.
6.5. The Trust of Manjou in Their Right to Rule the World.
6.6. Did the Chinese under the Rule of Manjou Copy the "Ancient Models"?
6.7. How was the Chinese History created?
6.8. What Books from the Middle Ages the Chinese Emperor Burnt in the "IIIrd century BC"?
6.9. Who are those Manjous?
6.10. The Unsuccessful Attempts of Manjous to Avoid Assimilation.
7. Our Reconstruction
8. What Happened in the Territory of Contemporary China before the XVIIth Century AD
9. Were Paper, Gunpowder, and Silk Really Invented in China?
0. About the Historical Sources of Modern Mongols
11. Where China is Shown on Old Maps?
The Great = “Mongolian” conquest of Japan.
1. The military caste of the Japanese Samurai as the descendants of the XIV-XV century conquerors of Japan originating from the Horde.
2. Mediaeval Japan could have been a Christian country. Traces of Russia, or the Horde, in Japan.
3. The manufacture of the famous Samurai swords involved the “Tartar Process” in the Middle Ages.
Scythia and the Great Migration. The colonization of Europe, Africa and Asia by Russia, or the Horde, in the XIV century.
West Europeans writing about the Great = “Mongolian” Russia.
1. Invasion into Europe, the Mediterranean region and Asia under Ivan Kalita (Batu-Khan). The foundation of the Great = “Mongolian” Empire.
1.1. Scaligerian chronology of the “Mongolian” invasion.
1.2. The reaction of the Western Europe to the “Mongolian” invasion.
1.3. Negotiations with the “Mongols”. The curt response sent by Guyuk-Khan to the Pope.
1.4. Christianity of the “Mongols”.
1.5. The missive sent to the French king by the “Mongolian” Khan.
1.6. The second armed invasion of the Russians as a real menace in the late XVI – early XVII century.
1.7. German historians of the second half of the XIX century still remembered much of the authentic mediaeval history.
1.7.1. Mediaeval authors were of the opinion that the famous Byzantine Emperor Justinian
1.7.2. The Slavic conquest of the Balkans and the “ancient” Greece.
1.7.3. Turkish princes minted coins with representations of Christ with a sceptre and a Christian orb, presumably “failing to comprehend” the meaning of these symbols.
2. The “Mongolian” Empire and the famous Christian kingdom of Presbyter Johannes. Khans of the “Mongols” as Orthodox Christians.
3. Great Tartary and China.
4. Mediaeval Western reports about the Kingdom of Presbyter Johannes, or the Russian Empire (the Horde) in the XIV-XVI century.
4.1. The “antiquity” and the Middle Ages are fused together on geographical maps.
4.2. The “Mongol” (Russian) Horde of the XIV-XVI century described in the Bible and the Koran as the famous nations of Gog and Magog.
4.3. The war between the Russian “Mongol and Tartar” Horde and the “ancient” Alexander the Great.
4.3.1. The wars against Gog and Magog and the gigantic wall that held them “in seclusion”.
4.3.2. The wall of Gog and Magog: the time and place of its construction.
4.4. The “Mongolian” conquest as described by later Western European chroniclers.
5. The Kingdom of Presbyter Johannes, or the Russian and Ataman Horde as the dominant power of the XIV-XVI century.
5.1. Presbyter Johannes as the liege of the Western rulers.
5.2. The foundation of the “Mongolian” Empire and the divide of its Eurasian part three hundred years later into Russia, Turkey and the Western Europe.
5.3. A general view of the Eurasian map.
5.4. The opposition between the West - and the Atamans and Russia, or the Horde. The part
played by the Romanovs.
6. A new look on the Kingdom of Presbyter Johannes.
6.1. Presbyter Johannes.
6.2. European names distorted beyond recognition in later Chinese transcription.
6.3. Europeans called China “Land of the Ceres”.
6.4. The famous mediaeval “Epistle of Presbyter Johannes” as an authentic document describing
the life of the ancient Russia, or “Mongolia”.
6.5. The river of Paradise flowing through the kingdom of Presbyter Johannes.
6.5.1. The two rivers: Don and Edon.
6.5.2. River Volga was also known as “Don”.
6.5.3. River Physon and Russian River Teza.
6.5.4. River Volga (or Ra) as a “river or paradise”. Rai as the Russian for “paradise”.
6.5.5. The birthplace of Presbyter Johannes.
6.5.6. Khulna, the capital city of the Presbyter’s kingdom, identifiable as Yaroslavl, or
Novgorod the Great (also known as Kholmgrad).
6.5.7. The description of the flood on the great Indian river Volga in the epistle of Presbyter
6.5.8. Which church is famous for the “parting of the waters” around it on the Feast of St.
6.6. The identity and location of the ancient India.
6.7. What the West Europeans of the XII-XVI century knew about India.
The Slavic conquest of Europe and Asia. A rare book of Mauro Orbini about the “Slavic Expansion”.
1. Did the Western Europe remember the “Mongolian” conquest to have been undertaken by the Slavs?
2. Why did Peter the Great build St. Petersburg amidst the swamps? The book of Mauro Orbini.
3. The conquest of Europe and Asia by the Slav according to Orbini’s book.
4. Our conception explains the book of Orbini.
5. The parties that went to battle and won, and the ones that lost, but wrote history.
6. Where did Orbini conduct his research?
7. Orbini was aware that historians would not like his work.
8. The list of sources used by Orbini.
9. Orbini’s book uses Western European materials.
10. Our point of view on Orbini’s book.
11. The use of the Cyrillic alphabet in the Western Europe as reported by Orbini.
12. Orbini on the Slavic Goths.
13. Orbini on the Russian Slavs, or the Muscovites.
14. Orbini on the Huns and Attila as a Russian warlord.
15. Hungary in the title of the Russian Czars.
16. Orbini on the campaigns of the Russian Muscovites in the epoch of the “Antiquity”.
17. Orbini on the “Finns, or Fennes, a Slavic tribe”.
18. Orbini on the “Slavic Dacians”.
19. Orbini on the “Norman Slavs”.
20. Orbini on the Amazons – “the famed Slavic warrior women”.
The Slavs in European history as per the book of Volanskiy and Klassen.
1. Why the books of Orbini, Chertkov, Volanskiy, Klassen and many others were neither refuted, nor accepted.
2. Evidence of Slavic presence in the Western Europe perceived as perfectly natural from the
viewpoint of our conception.
3. F. Volanskiy, Y. I. Klassen and their historical research.
4. Slavic presence in Europe was described in many books dating up until the XVIII century.
Mediaeval Scandinavian maps and geographical oeuvres report the “Mongolian” conquest of Eurasia and Africa.
1. A general characteristic of geographical tractates.
1.1. The time most Scandinavian tractates on geography were written.
1.2. The physical appearance of the first maps.
1.3. The same name with slight variations can be found all across the world on the map.
1.4. The multiplication of names on the world map: when and how did it happen?
1.5. A useful alphabetic list of geographical names and their identifications compiled by the
authors from Scandinavian tractates and names.
2. Japheth as the son of the Biblical Noah. The nation that bore this name and its geographical localisation.
2.1. The offspring of the Biblical Japheth populated all of Europe.
2.2. The first son, or the Biblical Magog.
2.3. The second son, or the Biblical Madai.
2.4. The third son, or the Biblical Javan (Ivan).
2.5. The fourth son, or the Biblical Tiras (Turk).
2.6. The fifth son, or the Biblical Tubal (Tobol).
2.7. The sixth son, or the Biblical Gomer.
2.8. The seventh son, or the Biblical Meshech (Mosoch).
2.9. Thus, who are the sons of the Biblical Japheth?
3. The Trojan conquest of Europe.
3.1. The origins of the settlers who populated Russia, Norway, Iceland and Greenland.
3.2. It turns out that Europe, Britain and Scandinavia were populated by either the Turks or the Asian Trojans.
3.3. The exodus of the Trojans from Byzantium in the XIII-XIV century virtually coincided with the beginning of the “Mongolian” conquest.
3.4. True stories of medieval Scandinavians do not agree with Scaliger history.
3.5. Other European countries were also supposedly mistaken presuming that their nations descended from the Trojans.
3.6. The settlement of England by the Britons - the Trojans and their descendants in the XIII-XIV centuries AD.
4. Slavic conquest of Europe allegedly of the VI-VII centuries ad as one of the reflections of the Russian "Mongolian" conquest of the XIV-XV centuries.
5. Comparison of the West and the East in the Works of A.S. Khomyakov.
5.1. About Alexey Stepanovich Khomyakov.
5.2. A.S. Khomiakov about the distortion of the Russian history by the West European authors.
5.3. Don and Rona - old Slavic names of the river.
5.4. Who are Bulgarians.
5.5. A.S. Khomyakov on the traces of the Slavic conquest in Western Europe.
Western Europe of the XIV-XVI century as part of the Great = “Mongolian” Empire.
1. The seemingly strange, yet perfectly understandable attitude of the Romanovs to the Russian sources mentioning the Western Europe.
2. Were the inhabitants of the pre-Romanovian Russia really “afraid of the foreigners”, as the Romanovian historians claim?
3. Europe invaded by the Ottoman = Ataman Turks. The reason why they were referred to as “Tartars”.
3.1. The beginning of the invasion.
3.2. Why the Russian “Legend” refers to the Turks as to Tartars. The date of its creation.
3.3. The Venetian Republic paying tribute to the Ottomans = Atamans.
3.4. A strike at the centre of Europe. Why Europeans were eager to pay their tribute to the Atamans in advance and not merely on time.
3.5. “Mongolian” vicegerent, or the rulers of the Western Europe, still paid tribute to the Ottomans = Atamans at the end of the XVI century.
3.6. France, Britain and the Atamans.
4. The gilded domes of Russia. What was Russia’s source of silver, given that it owned no silver mines in that epoch?
4.1. Were the Ottomans (Atamans) the only recipients of the tribute paid in silver by the mediaeval Western Europe?
4.2. Mediaeval trade between the West and the East. The West grew poorer and the East got
4.3. The Silk Road.
4.4. When was the custom of washing hands before meals introduced in the Western Europe?
4.5. What the Russians used the Western silver and gold for.
5. Futile attempts of the Westerners to drive a wedge between the allied forces of the ancient Russia and the Ottoman = Ataman Turks.
6. How the Western Europe finally succeeded in making Russia and Turkey hostile towards each other.
7. The joy of liberty.
8. Mediaeval Russian accounts of the Western Europe.
8.1. In re the XV century Rome in Italy.
8.2. On the life of the Western countries in general.
8.3. The attitude to the Bible in the Western Europe.
8.4. The global chronicle genre. The predecessors (or, rather, contemporaries) of Scaliger and Petavius.
9. Moscow as Third Rome.
9.1. The moniker “Third Rome” as used for referring to Moscow finally explained.
9.2. Moscow as the “New Jerusalem”.
9.3. “Russia and Jerusalem are wherever one finds the true faith”.
9.4. The source of the decree about the foundation of the New Inquisition in the Western Europe.
10. How veracious is our idea of the mediaeval Western inquisition?
11. The identity of St. George.
11.1. The Russian cult of St. George the Victorious.
11.2. The cult of St. George the Victorious in Europe and Asia.
11.3. George as the “ancient” warrior Perseus.
11.4. The famous “ancient Greek” myth of the terrifying gorgon Medusa as a memory of the invasion of George’s Horde.
11.5. Gorgon = George = Genghis-Khan represented in the symbolism of the “ancient” goddess Athena.
11.6. Ares, God of War: Ross (Russ)?
11.7. The Franks, the Turks and the Tartars. Paris, the Persians and the Russians.
11.8. Orders of St. George in Russia and in the Western Europe.
11.9. Georgiy the Victorious seizes Jerusalem = Constantinople. The Bosporus as the Sound of St. George.
11.10. The sound of St. George in Britain.
12. The knightly name of Rosh = Russ in crusade history.
13. Gog, the Mongols and the Tartars as Frankish crusader knights.
14. Direct participation of the Russian troops in the conquest of Constantinople.
15. History of firearms: is our perception correct?
16. Did the Horde conquer Transcaucasia or the Western Europe?
17. The toponymy of Stockholm, the capital of Sweden.
18. The reason why the famous icon of Our Lady of Kykkos from Cyprus is still concealed from public sight.
19. "Mongolian" = the Great Empire was split in the XVII century.
19.1. Why "Mongolian" Empire, the first and single really World Empire, through the three hundred years was splitted.
19.2. Diplomatic success of Western Europe in its struggle with Empire in the XVI-XVII centuries.
19.3. Who, when and why distorted the history of antiquity, that is the history of the XI-XVI centuries.
19.3.1. Involontary mistakes and intentional falsifications.
19.3.2. Today Scaliger chronological duplicates are useful for the reconstruction of the correct history.
19.4. Dispute on which religion is more ancient. Why it is better to use a longer ancient history.
19.5. Military and state support for the four religions of the XVII century and Scaligerian ranking of religions by their age.
19.6. Ferrara-Florentine Concil and failed attempt in the XV or in XVI century to prevent the church split.
20. Pogrom of the Russian Horde history on the example of Kirillo-Belozersky monastery.
Western European archaeology confirms our reconstruction, likewise mediaeval cartography and geography.
Surviving mediaeval geographical world maps do not contradict our reconstruction.
1. Our analysis of the maps collected in the fundamental atlas entitled “The Art of Cartography”.
2. Conclusions made on the basis of the mediaeval maps.
2.1. Why the Great Wall of China doesn't figure on any maps predating 1617 in the "Art of Cartography" atlas.
2.2. Most ancient maps do not indicate the year of their compilation.
2.3. Jerusalem as the primordial centre of the world. Indications of three cities (Jerusalem, Rome
and Constantinople) appear on later maps.
3. The evolution of the geographical descriptions and maps of the XI-XVI century. The condition they reached us in.
3.1. The reason for the multiplication of names on the maps of the XIV-XVI century.
3.2. How the Imperial geographic names were transplanted to new soil in the XVII-XVIII century,
accompanied by their historical descriptions.
3.3. Tedious descriptive diaries of actual voyages and thrilling tales written in comfortable studies.
The real contents of Marco Polo’s famous book.
1. Introduction. The identity of Marco Polo.
2. Who was the real author of Marco Polo’s book?
3. In what language did Marco Polo read or dictate his book?
4. Did Marco Polo visit the territory of modern China at all?
4.1. The location of the Great Wall of China.
4.2. How about the tea?
4.3. Has Marco Polo seen Chinese women?
4.4. Where are the hieroglyphs?
4.5. What else did Marco Polo “ignore” about China?
4.6. What “indubitably Chinese phenomena” did Marco Polo notice during his visit to “China”?
5. Geographical names used by Marco Polo were considered his own inventions in Europe for two hundred years.
6. What are the “islands” mentioned by Marco Polo?
7. Why modern commentators have to “correct” certain names used by Marco Polo, allegedly in error.
8. What direction should one take in order to reach India and China from Italy?
9. Why Marco Polo mentions spices, silks and oriental wares in general when he tells us about India, or Russia.
10. The toponymy of the name “India”.
11. When and how were certain geographical names used by Marco Polo “localised”.
12. Miniatures in the book of Marco Polo.
12.1. What did they depict?
12.2. Miniature entitled “The Death of Genghis-Khan”.
12.3. Miniature entitled “The Palace at Khan-Balyk”.
12.4. Miniature entitled “Borus” (Boris?)
12.5. The identity of the people with canine heads.
12.6. Turbans as native Russian headdress.
12.7. Miniature entitled “Cynocephali”.
12.8. Other miniatures from Marco Polo’s book.
13. The “Kuznetskiy Most” in mediaeval China.
14. The itinerary of Marco Polo.
14.1. Futile attempts of the commentators to retrace the itinerary of Marco Polo.
14.2. The location of Karakorum, or the Great Khan’s capital.
14.3. Cossacks on the pages of Marco Polo’s book as the Great Khan’s guard.
14.4. The Black Sea.
14.5. The country of Mongolia.
14.7. The great market and the customs office in the Russian city of Azov.
14.8. Polo’s further itinerary.
15. After Marco Polo.
17. Addendum. Alaskan History.
The disappearing mystery of the Etruscans.
1. The mighty, legendary and allegedly enigmatic Etruscans.
2. What we know about the Etruscans.
3. The “antiquity dispute” of Florence and Rome.
4. The two theories of the Etruscans’ origins – the Northern and the Eastern.
4.1. The Eastern Theory.
4.2. The Northern theory.
5. How the Etruscans referred to themselves.
6. Possible toponymy of the words “Etruscan” and “Tuscany”.
7. The Etruscan Tarquins = Tarkhuns = Turkish Khans.
8. Our explanation of the dispute between Florence and Rome.
9. The famous Etruscan lupine statue of the Capitol and the date of its creation.
10. Etruscans in the Bible.
11. What was the Holy Book of the Etruscans called? What was the Etruscan religion?
12. The appearance of the Etruscan lettering.
12.1. Which inscriptions are considered Etruscan.
12.2. The Etruscan alphabet.
12.3. The interpretation of Etruscan lettering according to Volanskiy.
12.4. Volanskiy’s examples.
12.4.1. The headstone near Creccio.
12.4.2. Boy with a goose.
12.4.3. Boy with a bird.
12.4.4. Double-sided cameo.
12.5. The unspoken taboo to interpret Etruscan inscriptions with the aid of Slavonic languages.
12.6. A fresh view of the Russian history stemming from our new understanding of the history of the Etruscans.
13. Slavic archaeology in the Western Europe.
Ancient Egypt as part of the Great “Mongolian” Ataman Empire of the XIV-XVI century.
History and chronology of the “ancient” Egypt. A general overview.
1. Our hypothesis.
2. A brief account of the mediaeval Egyptian history.
3. The erroneous Scaligerian foundation and the objective difficulties inherent in the consensual chronology of Egypt.
4. The “ancient” Egypt of the Pharaohs as a Christian country.
5. The construction tools used by the “ancient” Egyptians.
6. The religious character of many “ancient” Egyptian monuments.
7. What were the names of the Egyptian pharaohs?
8. Why it is presumed that before Champollion the Egyptian hieroglyphs were interpreted erroneously.
9. The question of origins: do the Chinese have Egyptian ancestry, or vice versa?
10. The destruction of inscriptions found on the ancient artefacts of Russia and Egypt.
11. Who destroyed the names of people, cities and countries written on the “ancient” Egyptian monuments? When was it done, and for what purpose?
12. The condition of the “ancient” Egyptian relics.
13. The advent of the mighty Mamelukes to Egypt.
13.1. The Mamelukes as the Cherkassian Cossacks. Scaligerian history admits that Egypt was conquered by the Cossacks.
13.2. The Caucasus and the Cossacks.
13.3. The Cherkassian Cossack Sultans in Egypt.
14. Linguistic connexions between Russia and African Egypt in the Middle Ages.
14.1. The alphabet used by the Egyptian Copts.
14.2. Egyptian names in Russia.
15. The confustion between the sounds R and L in Egyptian texts.
16. “Ancient” Egyptian texts were often transcribed in consonant letters exclusively.
17. A scheme of our reconstruction of Egyptian history.
The Trojan War of the XIII century and Pharaoh Ramses II. “Ancient” Egypt of the XIII-XVI century.
1. The nation of Heta or the Cossack Goths. Russia, or the Horde, in Egyptian texts found upon Egyptian monuments.
1.1. The Hitians, or the Mongols.
1.2. King of the Goths.
1.3. The land of Tana, or Tini.
1.4. The Don Cossacks.
1.5. Don as the “river of the Mongols”.
1.6. Khaleb = Aleppo can be identified as Lipetsk, a city in Russia, or, alternatively, as Apulia in Italy or the Russian word for “bread” (“khleb”).
1.7. The Land of Canaan as the Land of the Khans.
1.8. Russian names on Egyptian stones.
1.9. Scaligerian history admits the existence of “armies hailing from the Caucasus” in the “ancient” Egypt.
2. The Great City (citadel) of Kadesh in the “ancient” Egyptian texts.
2.1. The city of Kadesh in the Land of the Amorrheans.
2.2. Limanon = Rimanon = Roman.
2.3. Kadesh as New Rome on the Bosporus.
2.4. The city of Kadesh blocks the way to the Land of the Goths.
3. The Canaan land of Ruthen.
3.1. Russia, or the Horde of the Khans.
3.2. Another reference to the city of Khaleb = Aleppo = Lipetsk in Russia (or the Russian word “khleb”, “bread”.
4. The land of Nakharain as the Nogai River (or, alternatively, Greece/Byzantium).
5. Kita = Kitai (China), or Scythia.
6. Syria and Assyria (or Ashur in the “ancient” Egyptian inscriptions) as Russia, or the Horde.
7. Great Pharaoh Ramessu II = Ramses II = Roman Jesus.
8. Ramses, or Roman Jesus as the deity of the Ottomans (Atamans).
9. The Trojan War of the XIII century, or the war of 1453 that ended with the conquest of Czar-Grad.
10. Three peace pacts famous in Scaligerian history as reflections of one and the same pact signed between Russia and the Ottomans in 1253 or 1453.
10.1. The name “Turks” is rather ambiguous.
10.2. The peace pact signed between the Hittites and Pharaoh Ramses in the alleged XIII century B. C.
10.3. A peace pact signed between Syria and Egypt in 1253 A. D.
10.4. Peace pact signed between the Russians and the Greeks in the alleged IX-X century A. D.
10.5. The Greek Saint Mamas and the "ancient" Pharaoh Miamun as mentioned in the pact.
10.6. A list of cities mentioned in the pact between Ramessu and the King of the Hittites.
10.7. The Baptism of Russia as described in the "ancient" Egyptian texts.
10.8. The Cossack circle in the "ancient" Egyptian descriptions.
10.9. The Baptism of Russia and the marriage of the Great Prince and the Romean princess.
The XIV century “Mongolian” invasion into Egypt as the Hiksos epoch in the “ancient” Egypt.
1. The identity of the “ancient” Hiksos dynasty.
1.1. Were the Hiksos simple shepherds?
1.2. The Avars and Ruthenia (Russia, or the Horde).
1.3. The Hiksos Cossacks bring horses to Egypt.
1.4. The names of the Hiksos kings.
1.5. Phoenicia vs. Venice. The Slavs and the Veneds.
1.6. The “ancient” Egyptian “sutekhs” as the Russian judges “sudia”.
2. Why the names of nearly all the Hiksos = Cossack kings happen to be chiselled off the monuments of the “ancient” Egypt.
3. The famous Great Sphinx on the Gizeh Plain was built by the Hiksos (the Mamelukes).
4. Egyptologists are uncertain about the correctness of the "ancient" Egyptian names in their translation.
5. Egyptian kings of the Hiksos epoch.
6. The attitude to the Hiksos dynasty in Egypt. The epoch when the recollections of their reign started to get wiped out and the instigators of this process.
“Ancient” African Egypt as part of the Christian “Mongolian” Empire of the XIV-XVI century - its primary necropolis and chronicle repository.
1. General overview of the 18th “ancient” Egyptian dynasty and its history.
2. The “lunar”, or Ottoman dynasty of the Pharaoh, or “the dynasty of the crescent”.
3. Amenkhotep I and Amenkhotep IV.
3.1. Amenkhotep I.
3.2. The religious reform of Pharaoh Amenhotep IV (Khunaten - Khan of the Don?). Islam branches away from Christianity.
3.3. The foundation of Rome in Italy around the end of the XIV century A. D. as reflected in the “ancient” Egyptian chronicles.
4. Pyramids and sepulchres.
4.1. Who built the Great Pyramid of Khufu (Cheops)? When was it done?
4.2. The two other large pyramids.
4.3. The sarcophagi of the Pharaohs and the Russian matryoshka dolls. 4.3.1. The structure of an Egyptian sarcophagus.
4.3.2. The anthropomorphic sarcophagi of Suzdal and Vladimir Russia.
4.3.3. Tutankhamen’s telescopic coffins.
4.3.4. The Muscovite coffin of gold.
4.3.5. The mining of gold in the Middle Ages.
4.3.6. Wreaths from Tutankhamen's sepulchre.
4.3.7. Pyramidal gravestones in Russia.
4.4. Arabic lettering on the pyramids.
4.5. The Egyptian pyramids, or burial mounds, and "Paskha", the ritual Christian pastry.
4.6. What was drawn on the destroyed pyramid jacketing?
4.7. Inscriptions on pyramids.
4.8. Pyramids (or burial mounds) of white stone.
4.9. Why the Great Pyramids were built.
5. The gigantic funereal complexes of the "ancient" Egypt as the main imperial "Mongolian" cemetery of the XIV-XVI century. The identity of Tutankhamen.
5.1. Imperial "Mongolian" cemetery of the XIV-XVI century.
5.2. Russian Prince Dmitriy and Tutankhamen.
6. A hypothesis: certain major constructions of the "antiquity" were made of concrete.
7. The great forgotten invention of mediaeval alchemy: geopolymeric concrete of the Egyptian pyramids, temples and statues.
8. Concrete in the "ancient" Roman Empire.
9. The Mamelukes and the monuments of the "ancient" Egypt.
10. Egyptian pyramids as the Scythian burial mounds.
11. The capital of Egypt was known as Babylonia in the XVI century. Ottoman crescents with a star and the Ottoman "bunchuks" of the Cossacks over the "ancient" Egypt.
12. Napoleon's artists appear to have been afraid of reproducing the enormous Orthodox cross on the throne of the "ancient" Egyptian Colossus of Memnon in their accurate drawings.
13. Napoleon's artists reproduced the Christian motif of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross in their drawings of the "ancient" Egyptian Colossi of Memnon.
14. The "ancient" Egyptian Osiris as Jesus Christ.
15. The "ancient" Egyptian goddess Isis and her son Horus are most probably Mary the Holy Mother of God and her son Jesus Christ.
16. The two famous boats of the "ancient" Egyptian Pharaoh Cheops (Khufu) were made of wooden boards. Therefore, they are of a very late origin, and their manufacture must have employed iron or steel saws.
17. Slavic ornaments on the "ancient" Egyptian clothing.
Pharaoh Thutmos III the Conqueror as the Ottoman = Ataman Mehmet II, a conqueror from the XV century.
1. The astronomical dating of the reign of Thutmos III by the zodiacs of Dendera concurs with the New Chronology of Egypt.
2. The great conqueror of the XV century Pharaoh, Sultan and Ataman Thutmos III, also known as Mohammed (Mehmet) II.
3. The capture of Kadesh = Czar-Grad by Pharaoh (Ataman) Thutmos in 1453.
4. Relations between Russia, or the Horde, and the Ottoman = Ataman Empire in the XV century: two parts of the Great Empire.
5. The Ataman conquest of the Mediterranean region, Asia Minor and Europe in the XV century, according to the “ancient” Egyptian texts.
5.1. The conquest of Kadesh by Thutmos III.
5.2. The location of the largest obelisk built to honour Thutmos III = Mehmet II.
5.3. Another obelisk of Thutmos III = Mehmet II in Italy.
5.4. The union of the Ruthen tribes.
5.5. The new Ataman conquest of Europe in the XV century by Pharaoh Thutmos = Mohammed.
5.6. A list of the numerous conquests of Pharaoh Thutmos = Sultan (Ataman) Mehmet.
5.7. A list of cities conquered by Thutmos (Mehmet).
5.8. The Muscovite Kara-Kitais mentioned in the “ancient” Egyptian lettering.
5.9. The land of the Russian Khan in Italy.
5.10. The land of Kitti = Phoenicia, a. k. a. Venice, a. k. a. Scythia.
5.11. The “ancient” Egyptian text of the Kara-Kitai king.
5.12. Lists of valuables given as tribute to Pharaoh Thutmos by the Europeans.
6. The Egyptian obelisk, the Serpent Column, the Gothic Column, and the knightly statue of Emperor Justinian in Istanbul. The name of Moscow.
7. Some parallels between the biographies of Alexander the Great and Sultan Suleiman I the Magnificent.
8. The location of Memphis and Thebes – the capitals of the “ancient” Egypt.
Ancient Russia, world history and geography in mediaeval Scandinavian geographical tractates.
Chapter21. The meanings of the familiar modern geographical names in the Middle Ages. The opinion of the Scandinavians.
1. How we compiled the list of geographical identifications.
3. Asia = Land of the Aesir. The Azov Sea.
6. Africa. What did the name stand for in the Middle Ages? Where can we find it on the map, given that “Africa” was inhabited by many European and Asian nations?
6.1. Armenians used to live in Africa.
6.2. Scythia, including the Caspian North, was located in Africa.
6.3. Our hypothesis: Africa in the Middle Ages = Tartary = Thracia = Turkey.
6.4. African Germany.
6.5. Byzantium was believed to be part of Africa.
6.6. African Albania.
6.7. The African Goths. Samaria (or Sarmatia) was located in Africa.
6.8. The true identity of the “African” Mauritania.
6.9. How many African lands were located in Europe and Asia initially?
7. Blaland = “Black Land” or Babylon.
8. The Great Svitjod (Saint) = Russia = Scythia.
9. Vina. Byzantium. Volga. Eastern Baltic regions.
10. Gardariki = Russia. Geon = Nile. Germany.
11. The City (“Gorod” in Russian) = Grad = The Gods. Scandinavians and Europeans in general called Russia “Land of the Great God” and “Land of the Giants”.
12. Greece = Grikland = Land of St. George.
13. Dnepr. Don. The Danube. Europe. Egypt. The Western Dvina.
14.1. The three Indias as the three Hordes.
14.2. The horrendous and dangerous India.
15. Cairo = Babylon. The Kama. The Caspian Sea. Kiev. Constantinople. Kanugardr = Kiev. Kylfingaland. Lake Ladoga.
16. Miklagard in Thracia and Rome in Scythia (Russia).
17. The city of Murom. The Neva. Nepr. Novgorod = Holmgard. River Olkoga and the city of Olonets.
19. Perm and Bjarmaland.
20. Polotsk. Paradise. Rostov.
22. Saxland. Lesser Svitjod. Northern Dvina.
23.1. Is it correct that the land of the Seres, or Serkland, can be identified as the modern China?
23.2. Silk and combed plants: anything in common?
23.3. Serkland as the land of the Saracenes.
25.1. Scythia = Great Svitjod (Holy).
25.2. Scythia as Kitia, or China.
25.3. Scythia or China in Africa.
25.4. Scythia “named after Magog” and described as India.
25.5. The gigantic size of Scythia and its individual parts – Alania, Dacia and Gothia.
25.6. Scythia as the land of the Amazons.
25.7. Scythia was also known as Scotia, or Scotland.
26. Smolensk, Suzdal, Tanais, Tanakvisl, Tartarariki etc. Thracia = Turkey. Finland. Chernigov.
27. Sweden = Lesser Svitjod.
28. The ancient meaning of the word “Scandinavia”.
Corollaries. What the Scandinavian geographical tractates and maps report about the ancient Russia.
1. How different nations referred to Russia, or the Horde.
2. Rivers known as “Don” in the Middle Ages.
3. Sons of the Biblical Japheth.
4. The “Norman Theory” as perceived after a study of the Scandinavian maps.
What happened to the treasury of the Great = “Mongolian” Empire after the great divide of the XVII century.
The Biblical Book of Revelation refers to the Ottoman = Ataman Conquest of the XV-XVI century.
1. A brief rendition of the Apocalypse.
2. The warlord Joshua son of Nun as the “second coming” of Jesus Christ in the XV-XVI century.
3. The Great Apocalyptic Judgement as the invasion of the Ottomans = Atamans to the Western Europe in the XV-XVI century.
4. The Apocalyptic division of nations into “pure” and “impure”, the righteous and the sinners and so on as a reflection of the “quarantine massacre” of epidemic areas of Europe and the Mediterranean region by the Ottomans = Atamans.
5. Obvious traces of editing or even radical rewriting inherent in the Book of Revelation.
6. A possible reference to Noah = Columbus and his voyage towards the New World in 1492 made by the author of the Revelation.
7. Expectations of Doomsday in 1492 coincided with the departure of Noah’s (Columbus’s) fleet and the epoch of the Biblical Apocalypse.
8. The canonization of the Book of Revelation as a memento of the Ottoman = Ataman conquest for future generations.
9. MOSCOW EVENTS OF THE XVI CENTURY ON THE PAGES OF APOCALYPSE.
10."ANTIQUE" ROMAN EMPIRE IS GREAT = "MONGOLIAN" EMPIRE OF THE XIV-XVth CENTURIES.
Modern condition of the Egyptian zodiacs from Dendera and Esna.
1.The zodiacs of Esna.
2. The Zodiacs of Dendera.
A complete list of sources used by Mauro Orbini (according to the Italian edition of 1606).
Fragment of Mauro Orbini’s book entitled “Origine de gli Slavi & Progresso dell’Imperio Loro”
CHRON5 – ILLUSTRATIONS