А.Т.Fomenko, G.V.Nosovskiy
Slavonic conquest of the world. Europe. China. Japan.
Russia as medieval mother country of the Great Empire. Where in reality travelled Marco Polo.
Who were Italian Etrurians. Ancient Egypt. Scandinavia. Russia-Horde on the ancient maps.


Translated from Russian by Michael Jagger. Cover by Polina Zinoviev. Project management by Franck Tamdhu
(It is published with the permission of the publisher)

Paperback >>

History:Fiction or Science? Chronology vol.IV  Anatoly T.Fomenko  Gleb V.Nosovskiy




Part 1.

Russia as the centre of the “Mongolian” Empire and its role in mediaeval civilization.


Chapter 1.

“Peculiar” geographical names on the maps of the XVIII century.

1. Introduction.

2. The meaning of the word “Mongolia” as used by the authors.

3. The Kuban Tartars as the Kuban Cossacks on the maps of Russia dating from the epoch of Peter the Great.

4. The identity of Persia.

5. Czar-Grad and the multiple Saray cities on the maps dating from the epoch of Peter the Great.

6. The dating of 750 as inscribed upon a Russian naval chart, proves that Empress Yelizaveta Petrovna reigned in the eighth century as counted from the Nativity of Christ, and not the XVIII.

7. On some maps of the XVIII century Russia and Moscovia are written as names that refer to different region.

8. The name of the Russian Empire in the maps of the XVIII century.

9. The former identity of Lithuania.



Russian history as reflected in coins.

1. A general characteristic of Russian coinage.

2. The mysterious period of “coinage absence” in Russian history.

3. Strange absence of golden coinage from the Western European currency of the VIII-XIII century.

4. The origins of the bicephalous eagle as seen on Russian coins.

5. The Tartar and Russian names of the coins circulating among the Russians and the Tartars.

6. Russian and Tartar lettering and the presumably “meaningless inscriptions” on the ancient coins of the Muscovite principality.

7. Bilingual lettering on the Russian coins of the XIV century (Russian and Tartar).

8. The locations of the Tartar mints.

9. Why Great Prince Ivan III put the Hungarian coat of arms on some of his coins.

10. Some general considerations in re numismatic history.



Vestiges of the Great = “Mongolian” Empire in documents and on the artefacts found in Europe and Asia.

1. The allegedly illegible inscriptions on mediaeval swords.

2. Italian and German swords with Arabic lettering.

3. The reason why the coronation mantle of the Holy Roman Empire is covered in Arabic lettering exclusively.

4. Church Slavonic inscription in the glagolitsa script in the Catholic Cathedral of St. Vitus in Prague.

5. The peculiar title of Alexei Mikhailovich Romanov, a Russian Czar of the XVII century, as inscribed on his seal.

6. Stone effigies on ancient Russian grave-mounds. The “stone maids of the Polovtsy”.

7. N. A. Morozov’s input into historical science is great; however, his pro-Western theory is erroneous.

8. The Western European countries and their fear of the “Mongols and Tartars”.

9. The Great = “Mongolian” conquest resulted in a westward migration of geographical names.

9.1. The Volga and theBulgarians.
9.2. On the names of the rivers (such as the Don, the Danube, the Dnepr and the Dniester).
9.3. The hussars, the Khazars, the cuirassiers and the Czar-Assyrians (or Sar-Russians).
9.4. The actual identity of the Khazars.
9.5. Slavic names on the map of the Western Europe.


Part 2.

China. The new chronology and conception of Chinese history. Our hypothesis. Introduction.




Astronomical events in the “ancient” Chinese chronicles.

1. The actual astronomical events described in Chinese chronicles.

2. Chinese eclipses.

3. Chinese horoscopes.

4. The “ancient” Chinese 60-year cycle and its origins.

5. When did the Chinese invent the telescope?



Chinese comets.

1. Suspiciously high comet observation frequency in China.

2. Years of comet observations in China.

3. European comets and their observation dates.

4. A comparison of the Chinese and European comet rosters.

5. Comet Halley.

5.1. Introduction.
5.2. The analysis of Planet Halley’s recurrence cycles.
5.2.1. A list of the dates of Comet Halley’s alleged sightings.
5.2.2. What happened to Comet Halley in 1986? The reasons why it shifted to the other hemisphere.
5.2.3. What has been happening to Comet Halley after 1759? The reason why its recurrence cycles have become irregular.
5.2.4. The provenance of the “Chinese law of periodicity” for Comet Halley.
5.2.5. Dating the introduction of fabricated data into the “observation records” of Comet Halley.
5.2.6. On the chaotic character of Comet Halley’s motion.
5.2.7. Suspiciously high frequency of improbable occurrences in Scaligerian history. statistics for centuries on end?
5.3. In re the comet of Charles V.
5.4. Strange duplicates with the periodicity of 540 years inherent in the Chinese and European comet rosters.



Parallels between the history of Europe and the “ancient” China.

1. A general characteristic of Chinese history.

1.1. The reason why Chinese history is so complex.
1.2. Chinese names of persons and places.
1.2.1. What we come up with when we read Chinese texts and translate Chinese names.
1.2.2. European nations on the Chinese arena.
*1) The “ancient” Chinese Hungarians.
*2) Serbs in “ancient” China.
*3) Goths in “ancient” China.
*4) The Don Cossacks in “ancient” China.
*5) Tartars and the Turks in “ancient” China.
*6) Swedes in “ancient” China.
*7) Macedonians in “ancient” China.
*8) Czechs in “ancient” China.
*9) The identity of the “ancient” Chinese Mongols.

2. The landmarks of the parallelism between the Chinese and the phantom European history before the X century A. D.

3. Parallelism Key Points between the Chinese and Roman-Byzantium History of the X-XIVth centuries.

4.. Chinese History of Cidanes, the Kingdom of the Prester John, and the Emergence of the "Mongolian" Empire.

4.1. Copying on Paper of the Prehistory of "Mongolian" Empire to the European and allegedly Eastern "Chinese" History.
4.2. History of the "Mongolian" Empire in the "Chinese" Chronicles.
4.2.1. Roman and Nicean Empires in the "Chinese" Chronicles.
4.2.2. Ilya Dashi.
4.2.3. Gurkhan.
4.2.4. "Chinese" Imil and Ancient Russian River Ilmer.
4.2.5. "Chinese" City Of Balasagun And Old Russian City Of Balakhna.
4.2.6. "Chinese" Semirechie-Seven Rivers.
4.2.7. Ilya Dashi Becomes A Chief Of A Huge Army In The Semireche.
4.2.8. About the Name China. Why China Is Called China.
4.2.9. Grandiose "Ancient Chinese" Battle In XIIIth Century AD.
4.2.10. The Christianity Of Kara-Kitai (China). The Czar Skifs?
4.2.11. "Chinese" Chronicles, Talking The Same Time, Were Elongated By A Century.
4.2.12. When Were The European Chronicles Transplanted To China?

5. The History Of China After The XVth Century.

6. "Mongolian" Manjou Golden (Ch'ing) Dynasty in China

7. Our Reconstruction

8. What Happened in the Territory of Contemporary China before the XVIIth Century AD

9. Were Paper, Gunpowder, and Silk Really Invented in China?

0. About the Historical Sources of Modern Mongols

11. Where China is Shown on Old Maps?

12. Conclusion


Chapter 7.

The Great = “Mongolian” conquest of Japan.

1. The military caste of the Japanese Samurai as the descendants of the XIV-XV century conquerors of Japan originating from the Horde.

2. Mediaeval Japan could have been a Christian country. Traces of Russia, or the Horde, in Japan.

3. The manufacture of the famous Samurai swords involved the “Tartar Process” in the Middle Ages.


Part 3.

Scythia and the Great Migration. The colonization of Europe, Africa and Asia by Russia, or the Horde, in the XIV century.



West Europeans writing about the Great = “Mongolian” Russia.

1. Invasion into Europe, the Mediterranean region and Asia under Ivan Kalita (Batu-Khan). The foundation of the Great = “Mongolian” Empire.

1.1. Scaligerian chronology of the “Mongolian” invasion.
1.2. The reaction of the Western Europe to the “Mongolian” invasion.
1.3. Negotiations with the “Mongols”. The curt response sent by Guyuk-Khan to the Pope.

1.4. Christianity of the “Mongols”.
1.5. The missive sent to the French king by the “Mongolian” Khan.
1.6. The second armed invasion of the Russians as a real menace in the late XVI – early XVII century.
1.7. German historians of the second half of the XIX century still remembered much of the authentic mediaeval history.
1.7.1. Mediaeval authors were of the opinion that the famous Byzantine Emperor Justinian was Slavic.
1.7.2. The Slavic conquest of the Balkans and the “ancient” Greece.
1.7.3. Turkish princes minted coins with representations of Christ with a sceptre and a Christian orb, presumably “failing to comprehend” the meaning of these symbols.
1.8. Conclusion.

2. The “Mongolian” Empire and the famous Christian kingdom of Presbyter Johannes. Khans of the “Mongols” as Orthodox Christians.

3. Great Tartary and China.

4. Mediaeval Western reports about the Kingdom of Presbyter Johannes, or the Russian Empire (the Horde) in the XIV-XVI century.

5. The Kingdom of Presbyter Johannes, or the Russian and Ataman Horde as the dominant power of the XIV-XVI century.

6. A new look on the Kingdom of Presbyter Johannes.

6.1. Presbyter Johannes.
6.2. European names distorted beyond recognition in later Chinese transcription.
6.3. Europeans called China “Land of the Ceres”.
6.4. The famous mediaeval “Epistle of Presbyter Johannes” as an authentic document describing the life of the ancient Russia, or “Mongolia”.
6.5. The river of Paradise flowing through the kingdom of Presbyter Johannes.
6.5.1. The two rivers: Don and Edon.
6.5.2. River Volga was also known as “Don”.
6.5.3. River Physon and Russian River Teza.
6.5.4. River Volga (or Ra) as a “river or paradise”. Rai as the Russian for “paradise”.
6.5.5. The birthplace of Presbyter Johannes.
6.5.6. Khulna, the capital city of the Presbyter’s kingdom, identifiable as Yaroslavl, or Novgorod the Great (also known as Kholmgrad).
6.5.7. The description of the flood on the great Indian river Volga in the epistle of Presbyter Johannes.
6.5.8. Which church is famous for the “parting of the waters” around it on the Feast of St. Thomas?
6.6. The identity and location of the ancient India.
6.7. What the West Europeans of the XII-XVI century knew about India.



The Slavic conquest of Europe and Asia. A rare book of Mauro Orbini about the “Slavic Expansion”.

1. Did the Western Europe remember the “Mongolian” conquest to have been undertaken by the Slavs?

2. Why did Peter the Great build St. Petersburg amidst the swamps? The book of Mauro Orbini.

3. The conquest of Europe and Asia by the Slav according to Orbini’s book.

4. Our conception explains the book of Orbini.

5. The parties that went to battle and won, and the ones that lost, but wrote history.

6. Where did Orbini conduct his research?

7. Orbini was aware that historians would not like his work.

8. The list of sources used by Orbini.

9. Orbini’s book uses Western European materials.

10. Our point of view on Orbini’s book.

11. The use of the Cyrillic alphabet in the Western Europe as reported by Orbini.

12. Orbini on the Slavic Goths.

13. Orbini on the Russian Slavs, or the Muscovites.

14. Orbini on the Huns and Attila as a Russian warlord.

15. Hungary in the title of the Russian Czars.

16. Orbini on the campaigns of the Russian Muscovites in the epoch of the “Antiquity”.

17. Orbini on the “Finns, or Fennes, a Slavic tribe”.

18. Orbini on the “Slavic Dacians”.

19. Orbini on the “Norman Slavs”.

20. Orbini on the Amazons – “the famed Slavic warrior women”.



The Slavs in European history as per the book of Volanskiy and Klassen.

1. Why the books of Orbini, Chertkov, Volanskiy, Klassen and many others were neither refuted, nor accepted.

2. Evidence of Slavic presence in the Western Europe perceived as perfectly natural from the
viewpoint of our conception.

3. F. Volanskiy, Y. I. Klassen and their historical research.

4. Slavic presence in Europe was described in many books dating up until the XVIII century.



Mediaeval Scandinavian maps and geographical oeuvres report the “Mongolian” conquest of Eurasia and Africa.

1. A general characteristic of geographical tractates.

2. Japheth as the son of the Biblical Noah. The nation that bore this name and its geographical localisation.

3. The Trojan conquest of Europe.

4. Slavic conquest of Europe allegedly of the VI-VII centuries ad as one of the reflections of the Russian "Mongolian" conquest of the XIV-XV centuries.

5. Comparison of the West and the East in the Works of A.S. Khomyakov.



Western Europe of the XIV-XVI century as part of the Great = “Mongolian” Empire.

1. The seemingly strange, yet perfectly understandable attitude of the Romanovs to the Russian sources mentioning the Western Europe.

2. Were the inhabitants of the pre-Romanovian Russia really “afraid of the foreigners”, as the Romanovian historians claim?

3. Europe invaded by the Ottoman = Ataman Turks. The reason why they were referred to as “Tartars”.

4. The gilded domes of Russia. What was Russia’s source of silver, given that it owned no silver mines in that epoch?

5. Futile attempts of the Westerners to drive a wedge between the allied forces of the ancient Russia and the Ottoman = Ataman Turks.

6. How the Western Europe finally succeeded in making Russia and Turkey hostile towards each other.

7. The joy of liberty.

8. Mediaeval Russian accounts of the Western Europe.

9. Moscow as Third Rome.

10. How veracious is our idea of the mediaeval Western inquisition?

11. The identity of St. George.

12. The knightly name of Rosh = Russ in crusade history.

13. Gog, the Mongols and the Tartars as Frankish crusader knights.

14. Direct participation of the Russian troops in the conquest of Constantinople.

15. History of firearms: is our perception correct?

16. Did the Horde conquer Transcaucasia or the Western Europe?

17. The toponymy of Stockholm, the capital of Sweden.

18. The reason why the famous icon of Our Lady of Kykkos from Cyprus is still concealed from public sight.

19. "Mongolian" = the Great Empire was split in the XVII century.

20. Pogrom of the Russian Horde history on the example of Kirillo-Belozersky monastery.


Part 4.

Western European archaeology confirms our reconstruction, likewise mediaeval cartography and geography.



Surviving mediaeval geographical world maps do not contradict our reconstruction.

1. Our analysis of the maps collected in the fundamental atlas entitled “The Art of Cartography”.

2. Conclusions made on the basis of the mediaeval maps.

3. The evolution of the geographical descriptions and maps of the XI-XVI century. The condition they reached us in.


Chapter 14.

The real contents of Marco Polo’s famous book.

1. Introduction. The identity of Marco Polo.

2. Who was the real author of Marco Polo’s book?

3. In what language did Marco Polo read or dictate his book?

4. Did Marco Polo visit the territory of modern China at all?

5. Geographical names used by Marco Polo were considered his own inventions in Europe for two hundred years.

6. What are the “islands” mentioned by Marco Polo?

7. Why modern commentators have to “correct” certain names used by Marco Polo, allegedly in error.

8. What direction should one take in order to reach India and China from Italy?

9. Why Marco Polo mentions spices, silks and oriental wares in general when he tells us about India, or Russia.

10. The toponymy of the name “India”.

11. When and how were certain geographical names used by Marco Polo “localised”.

12. Miniatures in the book of Marco Polo.

13. The “Kuznetskiy Most” in mediaeval China.

14. The itinerary of Marco Polo.

15. After Marco Polo.

16. Summary.

17. Addendum. Alaskan History.



The disappearing mystery of the Etruscans.

1. The mighty, legendary and allegedly enigmatic Etruscans.

2. What we know about the Etruscans.

3. The “antiquity dispute” of Florence and Rome.

4. The two theories of the Etruscans’ origins – the Northern and the Eastern.

4.1. The Eastern Theory.
4.2. The Northern theory.

5. How the Etruscans referred to themselves.

6. Possible toponymy of the words “Etruscan” and “Tuscany”.

7. The Etruscan Tarquins = Tarkhuns = Turkish Khans.

8. Our explanation of the dispute between Florence and Rome.

9. The famous Etruscan lupine statue of the Capitol and the date of its creation.

10. Etruscans in the Bible.

11. What was the Holy Book of the Etruscans called? What was the Etruscan religion?

12. The appearance of the Etruscan lettering.

13. Slavic archaeology in the Western Europe.


Part 5.

Ancient Egypt as part of the Great “Mongolian” Ataman Empire of the XIV-XVI century.



History and chronology of the “ancient” Egypt. A general overview.

1. Our hypothesis.

2. A brief account of the mediaeval Egyptian history.

3. The erroneous Scaligerian foundation and the objective difficulties inherent in the consensual chronology of Egypt.

4. The “ancient” Egypt of the Pharaohs as a Christian country.

5. The construction tools used by the “ancient” Egyptians.

6. The religious character of many “ancient” Egyptian monuments.

7. What were the names of the Egyptian pharaohs?

8. Why it is presumed that before Champollion the Egyptian hieroglyphs were interpreted erroneously.

9. The question of origins: do the Chinese have Egyptian ancestry, or vice versa?

10. The destruction of inscriptions found on the ancient artefacts of Russia and Egypt.

11. Who destroyed the names of people, cities and countries written on the “ancient” Egyptian monuments? When was it done, and for what purpose?

12. The condition of the “ancient” Egyptian relics.

13. The advent of the mighty Mamelukes to Egypt.

13.1. The Mamelukes as the Cherkassian Cossacks. Scaligerian history admits that Egypt was conquered by the Cossacks.
13.2. The Caucasus and the Cossacks.
13.3. The Cherkassian Cossack Sultans in Egypt.

14. Linguistic connexions between Russia and African Egypt in the Middle Ages.

14.1. The alphabet used by the Egyptian Copts.
14.2. Egyptian names in Russia.

15. The confustion between the sounds R and L in Egyptian texts.

16. “Ancient” Egyptian texts were often transcribed in consonant letters exclusively.

17. A scheme of our reconstruction of Egyptian history.


Chapter 17.

The Trojan War of the XIII century and Pharaoh Ramses II. “Ancient” Egypt of the XIII-XVI century.

1. The nation of Heta or the Cossack Goths. Russia, or the Horde, in Egyptian texts found upon Egyptian monuments.

2. The Great City (citadel) of Kadesh in the “ancient” Egyptian texts.

2.1. The city of Kadesh in the Land of the Amorrheans.
2.2. Limanon = Rimanon = Roman.
2.3. Kadesh as New Rome on the Bosporus.
2.4. The city of Kadesh blocks the way to the Land of the Goths.

3. The Canaan land of Ruthen.

3.1. Russia, or the Horde of the Khans.
3.2. Another reference to the city of Khaleb = Aleppo = Lipetsk in Russia (or the Russian word “khleb”, “bread”.

4. The land of Nakharain as the Nogai River (or, alternatively, Greece/Byzantium).

5. Kita = Kitai (China), or Scythia.

6. Syria and Assyria (or Ashur in the “ancient” Egyptian inscriptions) as Russia, or the Horde.

7. Great Pharaoh Ramessu II = Ramses II = Roman Jesus.

8. Ramses, or Roman Jesus as the deity of the Ottomans (Atamans).

9. The Trojan War of the XIII century, or the war of 1453 that ended with the conquest of Czar-Grad.

10. Three peace pacts famous in Scaligerian history as reflections of one and the same pact signed between Russia and the Ottomans in 1253 or 1453.



The XIV century “Mongolian” invasion into Egypt as the Hiksos epoch in the “ancient” Egypt.

1. The identity of the “ancient” Hiksos dynasty.

2. Why the names of nearly all the Hiksos = Cossack kings happen to be chiselled off the monuments of the “ancient” Egypt.

3. The famous Great Sphinx on the Gizeh Plain was built by the Hiksos (the Mamelukes).

4. Egyptologists are uncertain about the correctness of the "ancient" Egyptian names in their translation.

5. Egyptian kings of the Hiksos epoch.

6. The attitude to the Hiksos dynasty in Egypt. The epoch when the recollections of their reign started to get wiped out and the instigators of this process.



“Ancient” African Egypt as part of the Christian “Mongolian” Empire of the XIV-XVI century - its primary necropolis and chronicle repository.

1. General overview of the 18th “ancient” Egyptian dynasty and its history.

2. The “lunar”, or Ottoman dynasty of the Pharaoh, or “the dynasty of the crescent”.

3. Amenkhotep I and Amenkhotep IV.

4. Pyramids and sepulchres.

5. The gigantic funereal complexes of the "ancient" Egypt as the main imperial "Mongolian" cemetery of the XIV-XVI century. The identity of Tutankhamen.

5.1. Imperial "Mongolian" cemetery of the XIV-XVI century.
5.2. Russian Prince Dmitriy and Tutankhamen.

6. A hypothesis: certain major constructions of the "antiquity" were made of concrete.

7. The great forgotten invention of mediaeval alchemy: geopolymeric concrete of the Egyptian pyramids, temples and statues.

8. Concrete in the "ancient" Roman Empire.

9. The Mamelukes and the monuments of the "ancient" Egypt.

10. Egyptian pyramids as the Scythian burial mounds.

11. The capital of Egypt was known as Babylonia in the XVI century. Ottoman crescents with a star and the Ottoman "bunchuks" of the Cossacks over the "ancient" Egypt.

12. Napoleon's artists appear to have been afraid of reproducing the enormous Orthodox cross on the throne of the "ancient" Egyptian Colossus of Memnon in their accurate drawings.

13. Napoleon's artists reproduced the Christian motif of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross in their drawings of the "ancient" Egyptian Colossi of Memnon.

14. The "ancient" Egyptian Osiris as Jesus Christ.

15. The "ancient" Egyptian goddess Isis and her son Horus are most probably Mary the Holy Mother of God and her son Jesus Christ.

16. The two famous boats of the "ancient" Egyptian Pharaoh Cheops (Khufu) were made of wooden boards. Therefore, they are of a very late origin, and their manufacture must have employed iron or steel saws.

17. Slavic ornaments on the "ancient" Egyptian clothing.



Pharaoh Thutmos III the Conqueror as the Ottoman = Ataman Mehmet II, a conqueror from the XV century.

1. The astronomical dating of the reign of Thutmos III by the zodiacs of Dendera concurs with the New Chronology of Egypt.

2. The great conqueror of the XV century Pharaoh, Sultan and Ataman Thutmos III, also known as Mohammed (Mehmet) II.

3. The capture of Kadesh = Czar-Grad by Pharaoh (Ataman) Thutmos in 1453.

4. Relations between Russia, or the Horde, and the Ottoman = Ataman Empire in the XV century: two parts of the Great Empire.

5. The Ataman conquest of the Mediterranean region, Asia Minor and Europe in the XV century, according to the “ancient” Egyptian texts.

6. The Egyptian obelisk, the Serpent Column, the Gothic Column, and the knightly statue of Emperor Justinian in Istanbul. The name of Moscow.

7. Some parallels between the biographies of Alexander the Great and Sultan Suleiman I the Magnificent.

8. The location of Memphis and Thebes – the capitals of the “ancient” Egypt.

9. Conclusion.


Part 6.

Ancient Russia, world history and geography in mediaeval Scandinavian geographical tractates.


Chapter21. The meanings of the familiar modern geographical names in the Middle Ages. The opinion of the Scandinavians.

1. How we compiled the list of geographical identifications.

2. Austria.

3. Asia = Land of the Aesir. The Azov Sea.

4. Armenia.

5. Austrriki.

6. Africa. What did the name stand for in the Middle Ages? Where can we find it on the map, given that “Africa” was inhabited by many European and Asian nations?

7. Blaland = “Black Land” or Babylon.

8. The Great Svitjod (Saint) = Russia = Scythia.

9. Vina. Byzantium. Volga. Eastern Baltic regions.

10. Gardariki = Russia. Geon = Nile. Germany.

11. The City (“Gorod” in Russian) = Grad = The Gods. Scandinavians and Europeans in general called Russia “Land of the Great God” and “Land of the Giants”.

12. Greece = Grikland = Land of St. George.

13. Dnepr. Don. The Danube. Europe. Egypt. The Western Dvina.

14. India.

14.1. The three Indias as the three Hordes.
14.2. The horrendous and dangerous India.

15. Cairo = Babylon. The Kama. The Caspian Sea. Kiev. Constantinople. Kanugardr = Kiev. Kylfingaland. Lake Ladoga.

16. Miklagard in Thracia and Rome in Scythia (Russia).

17. The city of Murom. The Neva. Nepr. Novgorod = Holmgard. River Olkoga and the city of Olonets.

18. Parthia.

19. Perm and Bjarmaland.

20. Polotsk. Paradise. Rostov.

21. Russia.

22. Saxland. Lesser Svitjod. Northern Dvina.

23. Serkland.

23.1. Is it correct that the land of the Seres, or Serkland, can be identified as the modern China?
23.2. Silk and combed plants: anything in common?
23.3. Serkland as the land of the Saracenes.

24. Syria.

25. Scythia.

26. Smolensk, Suzdal, Tanais, Tanakvisl, Tartarariki etc. Thracia = Turkey. Finland. Chernigov.

27. Sweden = Lesser Svitjod.

28. The ancient meaning of the word “Scandinavia”.



Corollaries. What the Scandinavian geographical tractates and maps report about the ancient Russia.

1. How different nations referred to Russia, or the Horde.

2. Rivers known as “Don” in the Middle Ages.

3. Sons of the Biblical Japheth.

4. The “Norman Theory” as perceived after a study of the Scandinavian maps.


Addendum 1.

What happened to the treasury of the Great = “Mongolian” Empire after the great divide of the XVII century.



The Biblical Book of Revelation refers to the Ottoman = Ataman Conquest of the XV-XVI century.

1. A brief rendition of the Apocalypse.

2. The warlord Joshua son of Nun as the “second coming” of Jesus Christ in the XV-XVI century.

3. The Great Apocalyptic Judgement as the invasion of the Ottomans = Atamans to the Western Europe in the XV-XVI century.

4. The Apocalyptic division of nations into “pure” and “impure”, the righteous and the sinners and so on as a reflection of the “quarantine massacre” of epidemic areas of Europe and the Mediterranean region by the Ottomans = Atamans.

5. Obvious traces of editing or even radical rewriting inherent in the Book of Revelation.

6. A possible reference to Noah = Columbus and his voyage towards the New World in 1492 made by the author of the Revelation.

7. Expectations of Doomsday in 1492 coincided with the departure of Noah’s (Columbus’s) fleet and the epoch of the Biblical Apocalypse.

8. The canonization of the Book of Revelation as a memento of the Ottoman = Ataman conquest for future generations.




Addendum 3.
Modern condition of the Egyptian zodiacs from Dendera and Esna.

1.The zodiacs of Esna.

2. The Zodiacs of Dendera.


Annex 1.

A complete list of sources used by Mauro Orbini (according to the Italian edition of 1606).


Annex 2.

Fragment of Mauro Orbini’s book entitled “Origine de gli Slavi & Progresso dell’Imperio Loro”




Auxiliary illustrations